The Ancient Near East in Prophecy (Daniel 11)
11:1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him.(538 BC)
2 And now will I shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.The four kings were Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius I and Xerxes, who was far richer than all and attacked Greece. (p.114, Rawlinson's Manual of Ancient History)
3 And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.
Alexander the Great defeated the Persians at Issus (333) and Arbela (331). (p.237 Rawlinson)
4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those. Alexander's Empire divided to four generals: Ptolemy took Egypt; Antipater took Macedonia; Laomedon took Syria; Seleucus Nicator took Babylon. (p. 245, Rawlinson; pp.36,61,63,65 Mahaffy's Empire of the Ptolemies)
5 And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.
The king of the south is Ptolemy Soter; his prince Seleucus Nicator seized Syria in 312 BC (pp. 65-66, 69, 87, 101-102, 106 Mahaffy)
6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times.
Antiochus II of Syria married Bernice, daughter of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) king of the south. Antiochus's first wife (Laodice) had Bernice, her infant son (not her father as KJV implies) and the Egyptians who attended her murdered and Antiochus poisoned. (250 BC).(pp.171-172, 196,198, Mahaffy) (pp. 251-252, Rawlinson)
7 But out of a branch of her roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:
Ptolemy III (Euergetes), brother of Bernice, invaded and conquered Syria and Asia. Height of Ptolemaic power. Seleucus II (Callinicus) was king of Syria (north) at that time. (p. 196, Mahaffy) (pp.252,272 Rawlinson)
8 And shall also carry captives into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.
Ptolemy III plundered Syria and Palestine of treasure. He carries 2400 idols into Egypt as spoil. Seleucus died in a fall from his horse in 226 B.C. Ptolemy III outlived his rival, not dying until 221 B.C.
9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.
(240 BC) This is a summary verse. King of South (Ptolemy III) attacked Syria (verses 7 & 8) and because of sedition in Egypt returned home. (p.252, Rawlinson) (p. 2884 History for Ready Reference, vol.4)
10 But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up, even to his fortress.
The sons of Seleucus II were Seleucus III who reigned for only three years, and Antiochus III , the Great, who restored the Seleucid Kingdom to its former extent. Seleucia, the port of Antioch, was retained on the Syrian coast despite losses after initial success. Antiochus III made war on Ptolemy IV Philopater of Egypt. The stronghold or fortress was Raphia, near Gaza, on the border of Egypt, which Antiochus attacked in 217 B.C.(pp.220,223,243,250, Mahaffy)
11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler, and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he shall set forth a great multitude; but the multitude shall be given into his hand.
Antiochus III, the Great, was defeated at Raphia by the king of the south, Ptolemy IV, Philopater. (pp.253,261, Mahaffy)
12 And when he hath taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up; and he shall cast down many ten thousands: but he shall not be strengthened by it.
The KJV is clearest. After Raphia, a treaty was made and Palestine, part of Syria, and Phoenicia were ceded to Egypt. (217 BC) Ptolemy IV's heart was lifted up in the city of Jerusalem on his return trip to Egypt where he tried to enter the Holy of Holies. God miraculously prevented him and he sought to revenge himself on the Jews living in Alexandria when he came back to that city. Philopater persecutes thousands of Jews in the city of Alexandria because he was struck with paralysis when trying to enter Temple at Jerusalem. (pp.262,264, Mahaffy)
13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.
Fourteen years after Raphia (203 B.C.), Antiochus III (king of North) assembled a great army for the Egyptian campaign and allied himself with Philip V of Macedonia against Ptolemy V, Epiphanes who was a weak king. (pp.265,291-292 Mahaffy) (p. 254 Rawlinson)
14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south: also the robbers of thy people shall exalt themselves to establish the vision; but they shall fall.
Many wealthy Jews emigrated to Egypt rather than subject themselves to the Syrians under Antiochus III after he had made himself master of Palestine. Adam Clarke comments that they thought the Jews and Egyptians should become one people and that they hoped to build a temple like that of Jerusalem in Egypt and thus fulfill the "vision" found in Isaiah 19:18-25). However, they rebelled against the Egyptians, joined Antiochus when Syria commenced invasion, and suffered when Ptolemy's army momentarily subdued the Jews around Palestine. (p.292, Mahaffy)
15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand.
Antiochus III defeated Scopas (Egyptian ally) at Paneas (Panium) in Syria in 198 B.C. Palestine came into possession of the Seleucid Dynasty. Scopas fled to Sidon (a strongly "fenced city") where he was forced to surrender. (p.292, Mahaffy)
16 But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.
(198 BC) All of Palestine was subjugated to Syrian rule under Antiochus III (the Great). (p.292, Mahaffy)
17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.
Roman intervention prevented a further Syrian expedition against Egypt. A scheming treaty was then made in which Antiochus III's daughter, Cleopatra (not the one in Egypt at 31 B.C.), was given in marriage to Ptolemy V, "Epiphanes" in the year 193 B.C. This plan to conquer Egypt failed when Cleopatra aided her husband against her father. (pp.298,305,306, Mahaffy) (p.254, Rawlinson)
18 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him.
Antiochus III invaded Asia Minor, Greece and took the Aegean Islands. He did not heed Rome's warning to get out of her European territory and he was overwhelmingly defeated by the Roman general L. Cornelius Scipio in the Battle of Magnesia near Smyrna in 190 B.C.
(from here on, the Greek fulfillment is in black). (pp.307,310, Mahaffy) (pp.2883-2885 History for Ready Reference, vol.4)
Julius Caesar was a prince at the head of a Roman army who aspired to the crown in his own interests. Pompey was his principal opposer who prevailed upon the Senate to issue the decree commanding Caesar to disband his troops. Julius Caesar refused to obey this "reproach" decree, and immediately advanced upon those who had sought to dishonour him. Pompey fled before him. Caesar pursued Pompey into Greece; and there Caesar succeeded in turning the reproach "offered" him by Pompey back upon the one who offered it. Pompey bore the reproach of being overcome on the plains of Pharsalia (9 Aug. 48 BC) by the one whom he had sought to humble. He saw 15,000 of his men fall on the battlefield and 24,000 taken prisoner by Caesar. Caesar "triumphed without his own reproach" as he Caesar lost only 200 men in that decisive battle (from here on, the Roman fulfillment is in red).
19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.
Antiochus III the Great lost a battle to the Romans and the resulting Peace of Apameia (188 B.C.) was onerous. Because he was greatly in need of money, Antiochus attempted to plunder the Temple of Baal at Elymais in Armenia of its gold and silver treasure and was stoned to death by the people of the city. He "stumbled" and "fell".(p.310, Mahaffy) (p.254 Rawlinson)
Julius Caesar, after conquering Pompey, returned to Rome (the fort). But he was not crowned ruler. He continued to labor "in his own behalf" toward that objective, till "he stumbled" and "fell" on 15th March 44 BC. when he entered the Senate, where sixty of its members were united in a conspiracy to destroy him; for they fell upon him with their swords and he fell, pierced with twenty-three wounds; and thus he "stumbled" and fell from his high position, instead of mounting higher , as he designed -- not to "be found" in the much coveted position.
20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom (or "there shall arise one who shall send a tax collector"): but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle.
Seleucus IV, Philopator, needed tribute money to pay Rome and sent Heliodorus to Jerusalem to rob the temple of its wealth. God miraculously stopped him. Seleucus was murdered (poisoned) by Heliodorus.(187-186 BC) (pp.310,332, Mahaffy) (p. 255, Rawlinson)
In the "estate" of Julius Caesar, his successor, the "raiser of taxes" was none other than Julius Caesar's nephew Gaius Octavius, whom he adopted into his family, and made the heir of his "estate."
He dropped his name Caius, and was called Octavius Caesar. Then when he succeeded in erecting the Roman Empire, he received from the Senate the title "The August". Then he dropped his name Octavius, and was called Caesar Augustus, and "There went forth a decree from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed," or enrolled for taxation. Thus he was "a raiser of taxes "in the glory of the kingdom" since he established the Roman Empire in its glory, and that the zenith of its glory was reached during his reign. The Augustian period of Roman history was its most glorious period. He died in quietness upon the bed where he had languished for days. But poison was the cause of his death; and that which his wife had prepared for the purpose, "destroyed" him.
21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.
Antiochus IV "Epiphanes" succeeded his brother Seleucus IV. He usurped the throne from his nephew, Demetrius, who was the son of Seleucus IV. Antiochus IV "Epiphanes" took control in 175 B.C. claiming to rule on behalf of Demetrius his brother -- a prisoner in Rome.(p.332, Mahaffy) (p.255 Rawlinson)
Tiberius stood up in the estate of Caesar Augustus as his successor. His was a "vile" young man and extremely corrupt. He was not honored by his subjects during his cruel reign. Through the cunning craftiness of his mother, and by his own plausible and hypocritical maneuverings, he peacably obtained the kingdom.
22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.
Heliodorus seized the throne after the death of Seleucus IV. However, Antiochus IV, with the help of the Pergamese king, Eumenes, drove Heliodorus from the throne. Antiochus IV deprived Onias of the High Priesthood and sold it to the Hellenized Jesus or Jason who in turn sold it to his brother Menelaus. The prince of the covenant was Onias III. Jason was a hellenistic Jew, brother of Onias III, who bribed Antiochus offering him money to become High Priest in 174 B.C. Thus Onias III was removed from office. Jason built a gymnasium in Jerusalem. Then Menelaus paid Antiochus a larger bribe to outdo Jason. He was not a descendant of Aaron but was made High Priest anyway in 171 B.C. When Onias III objected, he was killed. (p.255, Rawlinson)
The people were overwhelmed by the tyranny of Tiberius
, and broken by his power, until he could only be remembered as "The man who filled the streets of Rome with blood." The Lord Jesus Christ is the prince of the covenant which was ratified with his blood. He was broken during the reign of this "vile" Tiberius in 31 AD, when Jesus was crucified. He was "wounded for our transgressions" and "bruised for our iniquities." His body was "broken" for us.
23 And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people.
Antiochus IV dealt deceitfully with both the Romans and Egyptians after agreements had been made with them. His deceit is also illustrated by the above-mentioned transferral of the Jewish high priest's office. He then repudiated any connection to his poor brother Demetrius who was a prisoner in Rome and declared himself ruler of Syria. (p.332, Mahaffy) (p.255, Rawlinson)
24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.
The great extravagance of Antiochus IV in Palestine is well illustrated. Extensive Hellenization occurred during this period. He distributes his wealth of his position to buy the loyalty of a great deal of nobility in Syria. He issues threats and uses propaganda. (p.332, Mahaffy) (p.255, Rawlinson)
25 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him.
Because of the non-Aaronic High Priest, religious Jews appealed to Ptolemy VI who responded by invading Syria with a small force. However Ptolemy VI was betrayed into the hands of Antiochus IV "Epiphanes". His army surrendered and he became a puppet in 170 A.D. Ptolemy VI Philometor was king of the south. Antiochus IV "Epiphanes" reduced Egypt in four campaigns beginning in 173. Egypt then asked Rome for help. Forecast devices: a bribery and propaganda.(p.333, Mahaffy) (p.255-256, Rawlinson)
26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.
(174 BC) Ptolemy Philometor of Egypt was taken prisoner by Antiochus "Epiphanes" in guise of friendship (Antiochus was the uncle of Ptolemy) and Antiochus was crowned king of Egypt at Memphis. Egyptians in Alexandria then revolted and chose Ptolemy Philometor's brother (Ptolemy Physcon) as king. (p. 333, Mahaffy) (p.278, Rawlinson).
27 And both of these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.
Antiochus "Epiphanes" left Ptolemy Philometer as king of Egypt at Memphis where he then refused to continue as Antiochus' tool. Also, the joint reign of the two brothers (Ptolemy VI Philkometor and Physcon, Ptolemy VII) was quarrelsome and deceitful during this period. Alexandria Egypt held out against this puppet Ptolemy VI. They chose instead his brother Ptolemy VIII (Physcon or "Fat belly") to rule in Alexandria. Therefore Ptolemy VI and Antiochus IV get together and pretend to have common cause to get rid of Physcon (Ptolemy VIII). But in the back of each of their minds is the desire to get rid of eachother at the same time. A typical hypocritical conversation among politicians. But to do this Antiochus needed a large army, so he went home leaving his puppet (Ptolemy VI) to rule Egypt (except Alexandria). In short, uncle and nephew at banquet table each try to deceive the other. (p. 333, Mahaffy) (p.278, Rawlinson)
28 Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.
Antiochus IV "Epiphanes" returned to Jerusalem (where a civil war was taking place between the rival claimants of the high priesthood) and severely persecuted the Jews who rejoiced upon hearing the false report that Antiochus died (1 Macc. 1 :19-20)(p.337, 495, Mahaffy) (p.255, Rawlinson) . Antiochus has Menelaus levy a special tax on all Jerusalem to raise funds before heading back to Syria for even more fund raising. Then he can come back with a large military force.
29 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter.
Antiochus "Epiphanes" invaded Egypt a second time but was stopped by the Roman naval commander and ambassador, C. Popilius Laenas, who commanded his immediate withdrawal from Egypt. Rome makes Egypt a protectorate. While he is away Physcon is able to stage a complete coup and drive out Ptolemy VI and take over all Egypt. Ptolemy VI flees Egypt and sails to Rome. There he asks to be reinstated to his proper rulership of Egypt. Antiochus returns to Egypt in 168 B.C. but Rome sides with Ptolemy VI since they had a treaty with his father Ptolemy V. If Antiochus dared attack Egypt, Rome would respond. Antiochus therefore backed down, and left Egypt. Instead he took out his anger and humiliation on Jerusalem, supported by those who forsook the religion of Israel. (p.337, Mahaffy) (p.278, Rawlinson)
30 For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant.
(168 BC) Ships of Kittim: Roman fleet. Antiochus "Epiphanes" retreated a second time through Palestine and again vented his rage on Jerusalem with the assistance of renegade Jews under Menelaus. (pp. 339-340, Mahaffy)
31 And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.
Cp. Dan. 8:11-14. The daily sacrifice was abolished, an idol of Jupiter Olympius was set up in the Holy of Holies, and an altar for sacrifices to Jupiter Olympius was set up in the temple upon the place of the Jewish sacrifices. The Jews were forbidden to observe any of God's laws. Antiochus tore down houses to build the Acra Fortress. He changed the name of God to Zeus Olympius. He ordered Jews to sacrifice swine to Zeus. He prohibited Sabbaths, festivals and circumcision. Then on Chislev 25th, 168 B.C., he slew a pig on the brazen altar which may have been the "abomination of desolation." Then he plundered the temple treasury and left troops to carry out a reign of terror. For three years the Temple didn't operate -- from Chislev 25, 168 to Chislev 25, 165 B.C. (p.340-341, Mahaffy) (p.255, Rawlinson)
Titus with his forces entered the temple in 70 AD, defiling it with their presence and profane work. On the 17th July, 70 AD, "the daily sacrifice" ceased forever to be offered, because the Jews were so reduced by the Romans that there was no proper person left to offer it. "The abomination that maketh desolate" was also placed when the Roman army destroyed that holy city, and made desolate that country. (Matt. 24:15). In other words, "when ye see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. The Roman armies are the abomination that makes desolate.
The Roman standards on the Holy Temple in the Jewish War where Titus destroyed Jerusalem was a second fulfillment.
32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits.
Many Jews rejected God's covenant. This verse describes the era of the Maccabean revolt to the time of Christ. The Sadducees were Hellenists and embraced paganism while the Hasidim (Pharisees) heroically opposed the Syrian presence. (168 BC) (p.340-341, Mahaffy) (p.255, Rawlinson)
33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days.
The Maccabees had a righteous zeal. But many others joined for less honorable reasons. Christians convert many to Christianity and are persecuted during ten Roman persecutionsis a second fulfillment.
34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries.
Constantine stopped the persecution of Christians; and made Christianity the religion of the empire. Roman government became Christian under Constantine generating many insincere converts (hypocrites) throughout the empire. The Christian Church became popular. For the sake of advantage, people became nominal Christians.
35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.
Papal persecution finally ended with the abolishment of Jesuitism in 1773 AD. Therefore the "time of the end" must have commenced there.
Judas Maccabeas was killed in the Battle of Elasa in 161 B.C. The time appointed is the coming of the Messiah in 27 A.D. Heresies, schisms and persecutions among Christians.
36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.
The Temple of God was renamed the temple of Jupiter Olympius, and every conceivable outrage was perpetrated within its precincts: "And to pollute also the temple in Jerusalem, and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius; ... for the temple was filled with riot and revelling by the Gentiles who dallied with harlots, and had to do with women within the circuit of the holy places ... The altar also was filled with profane things ... and when the feast of Bacchus was kept, the Jews were compelled to go in procession to Bacchus carrying ivy ... there were two women brought who had circumcized their children; whom when they had openly led round about the city, the babes hanging at their breasts, they cast them down headlong from the wall" (2 Macc. 6:2,4,5,7,10). In the same book is recorded how the king tortured and maimed seven sons in the presence of their mother, and caused thdem to be fried alive. "It came to pass also, that seven brethren with their mother were taken, and compelled by the king against the law to taste swine's flesh, and were tormented with scourges and whips. Then the king being in a rage, commanded pans and caldrons to be made hot: which forthwith beingheated, he commanded to cut out the tongue of him that spake first, and to cut off the utmost parts of his body, the rest of his brethren and his mother looking on. Now when he was thus maimed in all his members, he commanded him being yet alive to be brought to the fire, and to be fried in the pan" (2 Macc. 7:1,3,4,5)
The papal king exalts himself and blasphemes also.
37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.
Antiochus "Epiphanes" was one of the Seleucidae, a Macedonian, and therefore a descendant of the tribe of Dan. The god of his fathers was YHWH. But he magnified himself above all. He called himself the god "Epiphanes". He also caused himself to be depicted as the god Jupiter (Zeus) on some of his coins. Disregarding the desire of women for motherhood, and their children, "they hung the infants from their mothers' necks" (1 Macc. 1:54-61). Antiochus had no pity for the tears of mothers or the suffering of little children. We read: "they also strangled those women and their sons whom they had circumcised, as the king had appointed, hanging their sons about their necks as they were upon crosses" (Josephus Ant. 12:5:4).
Monks and nuns made vows of celibacy (forbidding to marry -- 1 Tim. 4:3) in both eastern and western church.
38 But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.
Antiochus placed an altar upon the altar of sacrifice in the Temple at Jerusalem to honour Jupiter. "And when the king had built an idol altar upon God's altar, he slew swine upon it, and so offered a sacrifice neither according to law, nor the Jewish religious worship in that country" (Ant. 12:5:4). Jupiter Capitolinus was the "god of forces" or fortresses. "When a foreign state had injured Rome, it was forbidden to begin war without a formal declaration by the fetiales or heralds, the ministers of Jupiter. Headed by the pater patratus populi Romani, they appealed to Jupiter to witness that they had been wronged, and denounced ruin on the wrong-doers. Having thus through his representative on earth solemnly warned the guilty, the god as Victor led his people to conquest. When the army returned, their entry was a religious ceremonial in honour of Jupiter. The general, as representative of Jove, was borne on a guilded chariot drawn by four white horses through the Porta Triumphalis to the temple on the Capitol, where he offered a solemn sacrifice to the god, and laid on his knees the victor's laurels" (Encyc. Brit. vol. 13, p.780)
Protectors (fortresses), saints or angels (or demons -- 1 Tim. 4:1). The queen of heaven (Jer. 44:17) or Diana of Ephesians (Acts 19:27) became Virgin Mary.
39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.
40 And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.
Napoleon advanced into Egypt in 1797 and conquered it, becoming the king of the south. Then being ambitious to get possession of Constantinople, he advanced toward Acre, in Syria. Syria was part of the Ottoman Empire. The Sultan of Turkey was therefore king of the north. The Russians and the English came to the assistance of the Sultan, and their "many ships" of war grandly appeared before that seaport town to operate against the French. Napoleon was defeated. (from here on, the end-time fulfillment is in blue)
41 He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.
42 He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.
Then the Sultan with his army "Overflowed and passed over the land of Palestine" and he entered "the land of Egypt," and conquered that country.
43 But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps.
Egypt was obliged to pay a certain amount of gold and silver annually into the treasury of the Sultan, besides a large amount of wheat and barley, "the most precious things of Egypt." Libyans and Ethiopians were also under his control.
44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many.
After the Sultan had gained his strong-hold in Egypt, he became greatly troubled because of conditions in the east and the Russian pursuits in the north, when the Czar began operating against the Sultan directly to get the much-coveted warm-water port for Russia. Planning and scheming to strike the fatal blow which should destroy the Turkish government, before other nations could intervene to save the Sultan. Therefore, Abdul Medid finally declared war on Russia, "like a sick man seized with an insane fit," when he so suddenly advanced upon Russia in the "fury" of his provoked wrath. England, France, and Sardinia became involved in his interests, and the terrible Crimean War (1853-1856) ensued, during which about half a million men were destroyed.
45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
Turks occupied Jerusalem in 1917. But were chased out by the British and lost the war.
The Russian Bolshevik Revolution which was a punishment on the Moslem Religion which persecuted Jews and Protestants just as the French Revolution (1789) was a punishment on the Roman Catholic Church which persecuted Jews and Protestants. Atheistic Russia destroyed Turkish Islam just as Revolutionary secular France destroyed Roman Catholicism -- each after 1260 years. Also in 1917, Turkey was driven from Jerusalem and Palestine completely by Great Britain's General Allenby and Lawrence of Arabia from November 1917 to the Armistice in November 1918. Notice: 657 + 1260 = 1917
By 1917 (622 + 1335 = 1917) on the 1335th LUNAR year (Dan. 12:12), (1295 solar years), Turkey was driven from Jerusalem and Palestine completely by General Allenby and Lawrence of Arabia from November 1917 to the Armistice in November 1918. This period on the Moslem calendar occupied the entire 1335th Moslem year since the Moslem calendar ran from September to September.
If we add 1260 LUNAR years (1222.5 solar) to 657 A.D. we come to 1879 A.D. In 1878 at the Berlin Conference, the wholesale dismemberment of the Turkish Empire occurred.
If we add 1260 PROPHETIC years (1241.915 solar) to 657, we come to 1899 when Theodor Herzl established the Jewish Colonial Trust, the financial arm of the Zionist movement in 1899.
"And at the time of the end (decay of Syrian kingdom) shall the king of the south (Ptolemy VI Philometer) push at him (Demetrius I till 150 B.C. or Alexander Theopater Euergetes in 146 B.C.): and the king of the north (Pompey of Rome) shall come against him (Antiochus XIII) like a whirlwind (in 64 B.C. Syria incorporated as a province of Rome), with chariots, and with horsemen (5000 cavalry), and with many ships (270 ships) (& 120,000 infantry); and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. He shall enter also into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief (greater portion) of the children of Ammon (SE of Dead Sea not added to Roman province of Syria till Trajan's reign -- c. 106 AD) He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt ("granary of Rome") shall not escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, (he returned to Rome in 62 B.C. with approx. 30,000 gold talents) and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall shall be at his steps. But tidings out of the east (Judea -- A firm persuasion had long prevailed through all the East, that it was fated for the empire of the world, at that time, to devolve on some who should go forth from Judea -- Suetonius, Lives of 12 Caesars, ch. 4) and out of the north (Germany's legions proclaimed Vitellius emperor in 69 AD & Gaul's insurrection in 68 AD) shall trouble him: therefore he (Vespasian) shall go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many. And he (Titus) shall plant the tabernacles (or standards and eagles -- Num. 2:1-2) of his palace between the seas (Mediterranean & Dead) in the glorious holy mountain (Zion); yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him" (Dan. 11:40-45).
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