Who Was the "Old Goat"?
Which nations have been represented by the "GOAT" symbol? Just Greece? Who was the little goat horn that became great? Just Antiochus Epiphanes? What was the Abomination that desolated Jerusalem? Merely a statue of Jupiter Olympus? Was there more than one fulfillment historically? What do these fulfillments have in common? When were the 1260, 1290 and 1335 "days" fulfilled? What is meant by the 2300 "days"?
There have been at least FOUR abominations that have desolated Jerusalem and the Temple so far in history. They have all had similarities with eachother even though the first was Greek, the second Roman, the third Moslem and the fourth was called "Christian." As Ecclesiastes 1:9 says, "The thing which has been, it is that which shall be." History DOES repeat itself and we follow the historicist interpretation of prophecy.
Daniel 11:31 says that "forces will rise up to desecrate the Temple and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the ABOMINATION that causes DESOLATION.
In order for this prophecy to be fulfillfed again, the Jerusalem Temple must be rebuilt.
Turn to Daniel 11, verse 31 which says, "His armed forces will rise up to desecrate the temple and will abolish the daily sacrifice. Then they will set up the abomination that causes desolation."
The first Abomination that Desolated the Jews was the Greek Antiochus Epiphanes which adds up to 666 in Greek. Antiochus came from the Seleucid horn of this Greek Empire. The FOUR CONTEMPORANEOUS rulers were Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucus and Ptolemy. (Following their victory over the Persians at Salamis, the union of Greek states was headed by FOUR different states in SUCCESSION, namely Athens (477-404 B.C.), Sparta (404-376), Thebes (371-362) and finally Macedonia after 360 B.C.). His Greek armies took away the Temple furnishings, broke them in pieces and carried them off to their own country. Identifying himself with Jupiter, he sacrificed a pig to Jupiter Olympus and sprinkled PIG'S blood in the Holy of Holies (1 Macc.6:7; 2 Macc.6:2; Ant.12:5:4; 12:7:6). He placed a statue of himself as Jupiter Olympus on one of the FOUR HORNS of the BRASS altar (Dan. 9:27) in the Jerusalem Temple. There were exactly FOUR BRASS HORNS corresponding to the FOUR HORNS of the shaggy goat and the belly and thighs of BRASS. Antiochus "had sent letters ... unto Jerusalem ... that they should forbid burnt offerings ... profane the sabbath and festival days: and pollute the sanctuary ... set up altars ... of idols and sacrifice swine's flesh and unclean beasts ... leave their children uncircumcised, and make their souls abominable with all manner of uncleanness ... forget the law ... whosoever would not do according to the commandment of the king ... should die.... so they ... drove the Israelites into secret places ... And wherever was found with any the book of the testament ... they ... put him to death.... Howbeit, many in Israel were fully resolved ... not to eat any unclean thing" (1 Macc. 1:41-62). The last true daily sacrifice took place on the 24th of Kislev. The pagan sacrifices began the next day on the "twenty-fifth day of the ninth month" (1 Macc.4:54) involving 'revelry ... and ... offerings" on the "king's brithday" (2 Macc. 6:7) reminding us of December 25th idolatry when most churches put an image of a long-haired Zeus-like savior on a cross in their churches and worship a tree by giving it presents. The Jews were also forced to celebrate the "festival of Dionysus" in the Spring which was very similar to the Easter fertility celebration (2 Macc. 6:7). Antiochus persecuted Jews for 2300 days from Sivan 171 B.C. when the legititmate high priest was murdered till Kislev 24, 164 B.C. Josephus mentions "three years and six months" in Daniel 12:7. See Wars of the Jews, ch. 1, par.1, verses 1-2 (167 to 165 B.C.).
A second Abomination that Desolated the Jews was the Roman General Titus. (The name Teitan in Greek adds up to 666.) General Titus was appointed by Nero who was the FOURTH "HORN" in SUCCESSION after AUGUSTUS. The FOUR HORNS of the shaggy goat again. Nero was the fifth Roman Emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty (Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, Nero). Also, A.D. 69 was known as the "Year of the FOUR Emperors" because rebellion against Nero came to a head in Spain, where GALBA, believed that Nero was planning to assassinate him; and OTHO, lost his wife Poppaea to the emperor. In AD 68 OTHO supported GALBA in mounting a rebellion, but events ran ahead of them. After Nero's suicide the senators adopted GALBA as emperor. He then made the serious tactical mistake of adopting someone other than OTHO as his official heir. OTHO used the praetorian guard to assassinate GALBA early in 69. OTHO then was proclaimed emperor. Meanwhile the army on the Rhine had a different idea, acclaiming its own commander, VITELLIUS. His forces move south, meeting and defeating those of OTHO near Cremona in April. OTHO committed suicide. In July VITELLIUS entered Rome as emperor. But the soldiers in the east were equally reluctant to accept, unconsulted, the candidate of another section of the army. In July the legions at Alexandria acclaimed VESPASIAN, now commanding the campaign to put down the Jewish revolt in Judaea. These were another FOUR HORNS of the Shaggy Goat.
In Daniel 11:31, instead of, 'And forces shall be mustered by him' (Antiochus) -- an alternative reading says 'apart from him shall arms stand' or apart from Antiochus Epiphanes and his GREEK legions another force will stand up in the Holy land of Palestine and 'defile the sanctuary.' A ROMAN army of Titus. How can the Roman Empire be both the four-horned shaggy GOAT and also the red DRAGON? Because the Roman Empire had an eastern GREEK capital in Constantinople as well as a western LATIN capital of Rome. The Byzantine half had previously been part of Alexander's Greek empire and eventually became Moslem. In 160 AD, Clement of Alexandria said, "there were 2,300 days from the time that the abomination of Nero stood in the holy city, till its destruction." These 2,300 days, then, make six years four months, during the half of which Nero held sway (till June 9, 68), and it was half a week; and for a half, Vespasian with Otho, Galba, and Vitellius reigned. And on this account Daniel says, "Blessed is he that cometh to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days." For up to these days was war, and after them it ceased. " (The Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, p. 334). Also, from Cestius Gallus appearing Oct. 66 till the last ditch hold at Masada in 29th May 73 is 2300 days. In February 67 A.D., Emperor Nero of Rome appointed General Vespasian and General Titus to crush the First Jewish Revolt. The first Jewish Revolt had started six months before in August 66 A.D. The time interval from February 67 until August 70 when Herod's Temple was destroyed, is three years and six months (Dan. 12:7). Therefore, Vespasian and his son Titus fought against the Jews for three-and-a-half years (Dan. 7:25; 12:7; Rev. 12:14). The Roman legions carried their UNCLEAN standards, the EAGLE and the SERPENT (both unclean) into the Temple and sacrificed to them in the traditional Roman manner -- an ox, a sheep, and a PIG (unclean) -- hence ABOMINATION. The idolatrous ensigns of the Roman armies were erected in the Temple "over against the eastern gate," and "sacrifices were offered" to the gods of the heathen (Wars of Jews 6:6:1). Tertullian tells us in his Apology, that "the religion of the Roman soldiers consisted almost entirely in worshipping their ensigns, in swearing by them, and in preferring them before all other gods." (ch. xvi). Furthermore, as our Lord said, "when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with ARMIES, then know that its DESOLATION is near" (Luke 21:20). In 135 A.D. another Jewish revolt was suppressed and Bar Kochbar was slain. No Jew was ever again allowed within sight of Jerusalem, which was razed to the ground, and a new Roman city with a temple dedicated to Jupiter was built in its place.
From 63 B.C. when Pompey captured Jerusalem and claimed Judea for Rome, till 1088 A.D. when Pope Urban II (1088) preached the First Crusade and when the "Christianization" of Russia occurred (1088) is 1150 years or 2300 evening and morning sacrifices.
After Titus destroyed the Temple in 70 AD, Hadrian became Caesar from 117 - 138 AD. Hadrian, in 135 A.D. built a Temple of Jupiter on the Temple mount, ordering circumcision to cease and expelling the Jews from Jerusalem altogether. He not only made himself the object of worship in this temple, but made Jerusalem the capital city of the Roman world for the worship of Jupiter. Just as Hitler deceived British Prime Minister Chamberlain in 1938 AD that there would be "peace in our time", so too Hadrian deceived the Jews to believe that he was peacefully rebuilding the Jewish Temple, when in fact he was constructing the world headquarters "Temple of Jupiter". As construction began, the Jews probably even helped in thankfulness and praise to Hadrian. But when the Jews finally learned of Hadrian’s true intent, as did England learn of Hitler’s, they rebelled and a huge war broke out in 132 AD where 85 major Jewish towns were destroyed and 580,000 Jewish men were killed. The false promises of peace of Hadrian and Hitler both resulted in major holocausts against the Jews. Israel came to the promised land with about 600,000 men and they were finally expelled from the land by having about 600,000 men killed by Hadrian. The Temple of Jupiter was completed on the temple mount in 135 AD and was the most important (Jupiter Capitolinus) "Temple to Jupiter" in the world. While the Jews of Hadrian’s time may have been looking for the story of 2 Maccabees to conclude with a similar victory for the Jews, Hadrian was likely reminded of the same 2 Maccabees text to make sure the ending was different. Dan 9:27; 11:31; Matt 24:15 and Luke 21:20 are specific prophecies that the "abomination of desolation that will make sacrifice cease" in the Jewish temple was fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. But Hadrian became a later fulfillment of these same prophecies. The episode occurred in 117 AD with the rise of Hadrian to power. Hadrian built the largest temple of Jupiter in the world in place of the Jewish temple. We know that Hadrian wanted to make himself the object of worship in his Temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem and he set up a statue of himself riding a horse on the Temple mount. Hadrian, in the ultimate act of arrogance and insult to the Jews, placed this horse statue in the precise location of where the Holy of Holies stood from the Jewish temple. Remember Jesus words in Matthew 24:15: "Therefore when you see the abomination of desolation which was spoken of through Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (let the reader understand)." Constantine later built the "Church of the Holy Sepulchre" in 325 A.D. and destroyed Hadrian's temple at the same time. Eusebius wrote in 325 AD: "How Constantine commanded the materials of the idol temple (Hadrian's temple to Jupiter built in 135 A.D.), and the soil itself, to be removed at a distance: Nor did the emperor’s zeal stop here; but he gave further orders that the materials of what was thus destroyed, both stone and timber, should be removed and thrown as far from the spot as possible; and this command also was speedily executed. The emperor, however, was not satisfied with having proceeded thus far: once more, fired with holy ardor, he directed that the ground itself should be dug up to a considerable depth, and the soil which had been polluted by the foul impurities of demon worship transported to a far distant place." (Eusebius , The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine, book 3, ch 27). Yet in 400 AD, Jerome says that the statue of Hadrian riding a horse was still standing on the very place of the Jewish Temple.
A third Abomination that Desolated was Mohammed. (The name Mohammed or Meometis adds up to 666 in Greek.) Apart from Antiochus, "another force will stand up and defile the sanctuary" (Daniel 11:31). Upon Mohammed's death in 632 A.D., the FOUR CALIPHS in SUCCESSION assumed leadership of the Islamic people. Known as "the Rightly Guided Caliphs,' they were named Abu Baker, Omar, Othman, and Ali. Also there are FOUR Muslim DENOMINATIONS that exist CONTEMPORANEOUSLY: the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafii, and Hanbali. These were also FOUR HORNS of the shaggy goat. Then Moslem armies of the Umayyad Caliphate built the Dome of the Rock abomination in the place where the temple once stood in 691 A.D. From the rise of this "King of the South" starting with the Hegira in 622 A.D., 1260 solar years brings us to 1882 when the British occupied Egypt (Dan. 12:7). From 732 A.D. when the Arabs reached their zenith and Charles Martel stopped the Arab advance at Tours until 1882 is 1150 years or 2300 evenings and mornings. From 661 A.D. when the Umayyad Caliphate began to reign till 1922 when the Sultan of Turkey abdicated and Kemal took over is 1260 years.
The Turkish Caliphate came from Bagdad -- There were FOUR CONTEMPORANEOUS SULTANATES of Turks bordering on the Euphrates. They were Bagdad, Damascus, Aleppo and Iconium. They correspond to the four angels and four horns of the brass altar (Rev. 9:13-14) (or belly and thighs of brass). They also correspond to the "four notable horns" of the shaggy goat (Dan. 8:8,22). There were also FOUR great WAVES of Turkish hordes that poured into Greek Europe in SUCCESSION over a period of 400 years and four SUCCESSIVE CAPITOLS: Sögüt (1299–1326), Bursa (1326–65), Edirne (1365–1453) and Istanbul (1453–1922). Turks came from Chorassan -- the Seleucid horn. Togrul Beg of the Seljukian Dynasty made his capital at Seleucia which he called Bagdad.The city of Bagdad was founded in 767 A.D. and the original Bagdad Mosque was built in 767 A.D. If we add 2300 evening and morning sacrifices to this date (or 1150 years), we get December 9, 1917 when the Turks lost Jerusalem on Kislev 24 once again. The Turks gave up the city without a shot being fired thinking that "Lord Allenby" was a fulfillment of a prophecy of a "Man of Allah." "Beh" means "man" in Arabic. (Allen - Allah, Beh - man). As Haggai 2:18-19 says, "From the four and twentieth day of the ninth month (Kislev 24) ... I will bless you." It is a strange "coincidence" that Istanbul's freshwater estuary -- the commercial heart of the European side of Istanbul -- the principal harbor for 2000 years -- has a western name of "the Golden Horn," because the horn-shaped waterway reflects the golden sunlight.-- as if linking it to the Greek shaggy goat.
Just as Antiochus conquered south, east and toward the glorious land, so also did Islam conquer south, east and toward the glorious land.