Daniel chapter 6 Star Chart: Clockwise from when King Darius (Cyaxares II or Cepheus) made a decree against PRAYING to God [circa June 21] (6:7) in circa 538 B.C. till "thirty days" later (6:7), [circa July 21], is 30° days. Clockwise from "when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, (and) he went into his house (Argo); and his (solar) windows being OPEN in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he (Argo) kneeled upon his knees (oars) three times a day -- "evening, morning, and at noon" (Ps. 55:17) -- and PRAYED, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime" (6:10) till King Darius (Cyaxares II or Cepheus) "laboured till the (red radius horizon) going down of the sun to deliver him" (evening to evening is 24 hours)(6:14) when "the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and (red radius) cast him into the den of lions" -- 9 p.m. (Leo, Argo and Leo Minor) (6:16). "And a (lunar) stone was brought, and laid upon the (lunar) mouth of the den; and the king (solar) sealed it with his own signet" (6:17) till "the king arose very early in the morning, and went in haste unto the den of lions" (6:19) -- 3 a.m. -- and "Daniel (Argo) was (red radius rope) taken up out of the den, and no manner of (red radius scar) hurt was found upon him, because he believed in his God" (6:23) is 30° hours total.
God Rescued Daniel from the Lion's Den
As an introduction to chapter 6, we notice that Darius had 120 provinces originally (Dan. 6:1). Afterwards we find it enlarged to one hundred and twenty-seven provinces, by the victories of Cyrus, Cambyses and Darius Hystaspes. (Esther 1:1). Josephus reckons three hundred and sixty satrapies or lordships; but this is most probably an exaggeration or mistake (Ant. l. 10. c. 11. sect. 4). Herodotus says Darius divided his kingdom into twenty provinces (Thalia, sive l. 3. c. 89).
Darius—Grotefend has read it in the cuneiform inscriptions at Persepolis, as Darheush, that is, "Lord-King," a name applied to many of the Medo-Persian kings in common. Three of that name occur: Darius Hystaspes, 521 B.C., in whose reign the decree was carried into effect for rebuilding the temple (Ezr 4:5; Hag 1:1); Darius Codomanus, 336 B.C., whom Alexander overcame, called "the Persian" (Ne 12:22), an expression used after the rule of Macedon was set up; and Darius Cyaxares II, between Astyages and Cyrus [ÆSCHYLUS, The Persians, 762, 763].
Satraps were set over the conquered provinces (including Babylon) by Cyrus [Xenophon, Cyropædia, 8.6.1]. But Cyrus acted under Darius, as in the capture of Babylon; so Daniel rightly attributes the appointment to Darius.
the account gives by Xenophon regarding Cyaxares so fully agrees with the narrative of Daniel regarding Darius the Mede, that, as Hitzig confesses, "the identity of the two is beyond a doubt." If, according to Xen., Cyrus conquered Babylon by the permission of Cyaxares, and after its overthrow not only offered him a "residence" there (Hitzig), but went to Media, presented himself before Cyaxares, and showed him that he had appointed for him in Babylon, in order that when he went thither i.e., in order that when, according to Eastern custom, he changed his residence he might have a royal palace there, so, according to Daniel, Darius did not overthrow the Chaldean kingdom, but received it (Daniel 6:1), and was made king ( Daniel 9:1), namely, by Cyrus, who, according to the prophecies of Isaiah, was to overthrow Babylon, and, according to Daniel 6:29, succeeded Darius on the throne. The statement, also, that Darius was about sixty-two years old when he ascended the throne of the Chaldean kingdom, harmonizes with the report given by Xenophon, that when Cyaxares gave his daughter to Cyrus, he gave him along with her the kingdom of Media, because he had no male heir, and was so far advanced in years that he could not hope to have now any son. Finally, even in respect of character the Cyaxares of Xen. resembles the Darius of Daniel. As the former describes the conduct of Cyrus while he revelled in sensual pleasures, so Darius is induced by his nobles to issue an edict without obtaining any clear knowledge as to its motive, and allows himself to be forced to put it into execution, however sorrowful he might be on account of its relation to Daniel.
Xenophon in the Cyropaedia reports somewhat otherwise regarding Cyrus. According to him, the Median king Astyages, son of Cyaxares I, gave his daughter Mandane in marriage to Cambyses, the Persia king, who was under the Median supremacy, and that Cyrus was born of this marriage (i. 2. 1). When Cyrus arrived at man's estate Astyages died, and was succeeded on the Median throne by his son Cyaxares II, the brother of Mandane (i. 5. 2). When, after this, the Lydian king Croesus concluded a covenant with the king of the Assyrians (Babylonians) having in view the overthrow of the Medes and Persians, Cyrus received the command of the united army of the Medes and Persians (iii. 3. 20ff.); and when, after a victorious battle, Cyaxares was unwilling to proceed further, Cyrus carried forward the war by his permission, and destroyed the host of Croesus and the Assyrians, on hearing of which, Cyaxares, who had spent the night at a riotous banquet, fell into a passion, wrote a threatening letter to Cyrus, and ordered the Medes to be recalled (iv. 5. 18). But when they declared, on the statement given by Cyrus, their desire to remain with him (iv. 5. 18), Cyrus entered on the war against Babylon independently of Cyaxares (v. 3. 1). Having driven the Babylonian king back upon his capital, he sent a message to Cyaxares, desiring him to come that he might decide regarding the vanquished and regarding the continuance of the war (v. 5. 1). Inasmuch as all the Medes and the confederated nations adhered to Cyrus, Cyaxares was under the necessity of taking this step. He came to the camp of Cyrus, who exhibited to him his power by reviewing before him his whole host; he then treated him kindly, and supplied him richly from the stores of the plunder he had taken (v. 5. 1ff.). After this the war against Babylonia was carried on in such a way, that Cyaxares, sitting on the Median throne, presided over the councils of war, but Cyrus, as general, had the conduct of it (vi. 1. 6); and after he had conquered Sardes, taken Croesus the king prisoner (vii. 2. 1), and then vanquished Hither Asia, he returned to Babylon (vii. 4. 17), and during a nocturnal festival of the Babylonians took the city, whereupon the king of Babylon was slain (vii. 5. 15-33). After the conquest of Babylon the army regarded Cyrus as king, and he began to conduct his affairs as if he were king (vii. 5. 37); but he went however to Media, to present himself before Cyaxares. He brought presents to him, and showed him that there was a house and palace ready for him in Babylon, where he might reside when he went thither (viii. 5. 17f.). Cyaxares gave him his daughter to wife, and along with her, as her dowry, the whole of Media, for he had no son (viii. 5. 19). Cyrus now went first to Persia, and arranged that his father Cambyses should retain the sovereignty of it so long as he lived, and that then it should fall to him. He then returned to Media, and married the daughter of Cyaxares (viii. 5. 28). He next went to Babylon, and placed satraps over the subjugated peoples, etc. (viii. 6. 1), and so arranged that he spent the winter in Babylon, the spring in Susa, and the summer in Ecbatana (viii. 6. 22). Having reached an advanced old age, he came for the seventh time during his reign to Persia, and died there, after he had appointed his son Cambyses as his successor (viii. 7. 1ff.).
”And Darius the Median took the kingdom" This was Cyaxares the son of Astyages, and uncle of Cyrus; he is called the Median, to distinguish him from another Darius the Persian, that came after, (Ezra 4:5), the same took the kingdom of Babylon from Cyrus who conquered it; he took it with his consent, being the senior prince and his uncle. Darius reigned not long, but two years” (Philologos, Bible Prophecy Research, Title: Darius the Mede).
This was a joint effort in the conquering and reestablishment of the Babylonian (now Media Persian) Empire. Darius the Mede, also known as Cyaxares II, was definitely the uncle of Cyrus the Great, who probably reigned for about two years until his death, when Cyrus took full control of the throne.
Cyaxares II was Darius the Mede, uncle of Cyrus the Great. Being 62 years of age when he took the kingdom in 539 BC, he probably was born around 601 BC, dying two years later in 537 / 536 BC Though many still dispute the accuracy of Xenophons records and prefer to recognize Gubaru or Gobryas as Darius, an unrelated historical general who reined for only a year, that is not correct. Now we can begin chapter six.
6:1 It pleased Darius (Cepheus) to set over the kingdom an hundred and twenty princes, which should be over the whole kingdom;
2 And over these three presidents (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo); of whom Daniel was first: that the princes might give accounts unto them, and the king should have no damage.
3 Then this Daniel was preferred above the presidents and princes, because an excellent (Milky Way) spirit was in him; and the king thought to set him over the whole realm.
4 Then the presidents and (Gemini) princes sought to find occasion against Daniel concerning the kingdom; but they could find none (red radius line) occasion nor fault; forasmuch as he was faithful, neither was there any (red radius line) error or fault found in him (Argo).
5 Then said these (Gemini) men, We shall not find any occasion against this Daniel, except we find it against him concerning the law of his God.
6 Then these presidents and (Gemini) princes assembled together to the (Cepheus) king, and said thus unto him, King Darius, live for ever.
7 All the presidents of the kingdom, the governors, and the princes, the counsellors, and the captains, have consulted together to establish a royal statute, and to make a firm decree, that whosoever shall ask a petition (PRAY) of any God or man for thirty (30 degree) days, save of thee, O king, he shall be cast into the den of (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo) lions.
8 Now, O king, establish the decree, and (red radius pen) sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.
9 Wherefore king Darius (Cepheus) signed the writing and the decree.
10 Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his (Argo) house; and his (solar) windows being open in his (Argo) chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees (oars) three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.
upon his knees—Humble attitudes in prayer become humble suppliants.
three times a day—(Ps 55:17 "evening, morning ande at noon").
11 Then these (Gemini) men assembled, and (red radius line saw and heard) found Daniel (red radius line) praying and making supplication before his God.
12 Then they came near, and spake before the (Cepheus) king concerning the king's decree; Hast thou not (red radius pen) signed a decree, that every man that shall ask a petition (PRAY) of any God or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo) lions? The king answered and said, The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.
13 Then answered they and said before the king, That (Argo) Daniel, which is of the (Gemini) children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee, O king, nor the decree that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition three times a day.
14 Then the (Cepheus) king, when he (lunar ear) heard these (red radius line) words, was sore displeased with himself, and set his heart on Daniel to deliver him: and he laboured till the going down of the sun (sun on red radius line horizon) to deliver him.
15 Then these (Gemini) men assembled unto the king, and said unto the (Cepheus) king, Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed.
16 Then the king (red radius) commanded, and they brought (Argo) Daniel, and (red radius) cast him into the den of lions (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo). Now the king spake and said unto Daniel, Thy God whom thou servest continually, he will deliver thee.
17 And a (lunar) stone was brought, and laid upon the (lunar) mouth of the den; and the king (solar) sealed it with his own signet, and with the signet of his lords; that the purpose might not be changed concerning Daniel.
18 Then the king went to his palace, and passed the night fasting: neither were instruments of musick brought before him: and his sleep went from him.
19 Then the king arose very early in the morning, and went in haste unto the den of (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo) lions.
20 And when he came to the den, he cried with a lamentable voice unto Daniel: and the king spake and said to Daniel, O Daniel, servant of the living God, is thy God, whom thou servest continually, able to deliver thee from the (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo) lions?
21 Then said Daniel unto the king, O king, live for ever.
22 My God hath sent his angel, and hath (red radius line) shut the lions' mouths (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo), that they have not hurt me: forasmuch as before him innocency was found in me; and also before thee, O king, have I done no (red radius) hurt.
23 Then was the king exceedingly glad for him, and commanded that they should take Daniel up out of the den. So Daniel was taken up out of the den, and no manner of (red radius) hurt was found upon him, because he believed in his God.
24 And the king commanded, and they brought those (Gemini) men which had (red radius line) accused Daniel, and they cast them into the den of lions (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo), them, their (Gemini) children, and their (Gemini) wives; and the lions (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo) had the mastery of them, and brake all their (lunar crescent) bones in pieces or ever they came at the bottom of the den.
25 Then king Darius wrote unto all (Gemini) people, nations, and languages, that dwell in all the earth; Peace be multiplied unto you.
26 I make a decree, That in every dominion of my kingdom (Gemini) men tremble and fear before the God of Daniel: for he is the living God, and stedfast for ever, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed, and his dominion shall be even unto the end.
27 He delivereth and rescueth, and he worketh signs and wonders in heaven and in earth, who hath delivered Daniel from the power of the lions (Leo, Leo Minor and Argo).
28 So this Daniel prospered in the reign of Darius, and in the reign of Cyrus the Persian.