God's Hand in History
The following is a miniature history course -- "His Story 101" -- the way it should have been taught in grade school to every child growing up. But historical evidence to support God's hand in history has been LEFT OUT of our history classes. MIRACULOUS intervention and circumstances with PRECISE TIMING at crucial dates in the story of nations and empires point unmistakably to the GUIDING HAND of God. But God has been "kicked out" of school text books. "And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind" (void of judgment) (Romans 1:28). "For the material man rejects spiritual things, for they are foolishness to him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Cor. 2:14).
Secular History Confirms Abraham Entered Canaan in 1876 BC
Ur of the Chaldees was the birth place of Abraham. It was a NORTHWESTERN, not southeastern Ur. It was in the Haran area. The patriarchs were Aramean (Syrian). The city of Urfa (Edessa), 40 miles north of Haran, may have been his birth place since his ancestor was Arphaxad (Urfa + Chesed).
Abraham "was a person of great sagacity, both for understanding all things and persuading his hearers, and NOT MISTAKEN in his opinions; for which reason he began to have higher notions of virtue than others had, and he determined to renew and to change the opinion all men happened then to have concerning God; for he was the first that ventured to publish this notion, that there was but ONE GOD, the Creator of the universe ... to whom alone we ought justly to offer our honour and thanksgiving. For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans and other people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult against him, he thought fit to leave that country; and at the command ... of God. Berosus mentions our father Abram, without naming him, when he says thus: -- "In the tenth generation, after the Flood, there was among the Chaldeans a man RIGHTEOUS and great, and skilled in the CELESTIAL science.... Abram reigned at Damascus" (Antiq. 1:7:1-2; see also Eusebius Praep. Evang. 9:16:417). Abraham "taught the Phoenicians the motions of the sun and moon" (Eusebius Praep. Evang. p.9). He was "renowned for his JUSTICE and great exploits, and for his skill in the CELESTIAL sciences" (ibid.) Abraham was admired by the Egyptian priests "as a VERY WISE man, and one of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subject he undertook; and this not only in understanding it, but in persuading other men also to assent to to him. He communicated to them ARITHMETIC, and delivered to them the science of ASTRONOMY; for before Abram came into Egypt, they were unacquainted with those parts of learning; for that science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and from thence to the Greeks also." (Antiq. 1:8:2). Egyptians probably got CIRCUMCISION from Abraham also. The whole history of Abraham is related in different parts of the Koran.
Abraham was driven out of Chaldea because he refused to participate in their idolatry (Judith 5:8). He entered Canaan when he was 75 (Gen. 12:4) in 1876 BC. Isaac was born 25 years after that when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5) in 1851 B.C. Isaac was age 60 when Jacob was born (Gen. 25:26) in 1791 B.C. When Jacob was 130, he entered Egypt (Gen. 47:28) in the second year of the famine (45:6) when Joseph was 39 in 1661 B.C. Therefore "Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh" (41:46) in 1670 B.C. at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. Joseph was "seventeen years old" (37:2) in 1683 B.C. when he was sold into Egypt. Furthermore, Joseph was born in 1700 B.C. when God "opened her (Rachel's) womb" (29:22) and Jacob was age 91.
Secular History Confirms Sodom and Gomorrah Were Destroyed
Diodorus Siculus says, "The country about the Lacus Asphaltites being of an igneous character, and exhaling bad odours, renders the inhabitants sickly and short-lived." (Diodorus Siculus 19:98). "The water of it is bitter and fetid to the last degree, insomuch that neither fish, nor any other aquatic animals are able to live in it" (Diodorus Siculus Bibliotheca Hist. 19:734).
"The lake Asphaltites produces nothing whatever except bitumen, to which it owes its name." (Pliny Nat. Hist. 5:16; 35:15)
"Not far from the Dead Sea lie the desert plains, such as they report to have been of old a fruitful and flourishing country, full of populous cities, which were consumed by lightnings and thunderbolts; they add that the traces and monuments of such desolation still exist, and that the soil itself looks scorched, and has ever since lost its fertility ... To speak my own sentiments, I would allow that cities, once very great and important, were burnt here by fire from heaven, and that the soil is infected by exhalations from the lake." (Tac. Hist. 5:7).
"Near Moasada (a place near the Lake Asphaltites, called Masada by Josephus) are to be seen rugged rocks, bearing the marks of fire; fissures in many places; a soil like ashes; pitch falling in drops from the rocks; rivers boiling up, and emitting a fetid odour to a great distance; dwellings in every direction overthrown; whence we are inclined to believe the common tradition of the natives that thirteen cities once existed there, the capital of which was Sodom , but that a circuit of about sixty stadia around it escaped uninjured; shocks of earthquake, however, eruptions of flames, and hot springs containing asphaltus and sulphur, caused the lake to burst its bounds, and the rockas took fire; some of the cities were swallowed up, others were abandoned by such of the inhabitants as were able to make their escape."
(Strabo Geog. 35:2). The remains of Sodom and Gomorrah are now deep under water in the Dead Sea.
Abraham "entertained angels" (Heb. 13:2) by showing hospitality to them as they travelled toward Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. 18:1-8). Then Lot showed them hospitality when they arrived. He said to the perverts of Sodom, "They came under the shadow of my roof" (19:1-9).
|"Full oft, while piety was yet revered
By pristine man, the gods on earth appeared,
And, entering oft some hero's pure abode,
To human crowds immortal beauty showed."
-- Catul. Carm. 64:387
"Enter, my noble guest! and you shall find,
If not a costly welcome, yet a kind;
For I myself, like you, have been distressed,
Till heaven afforded me this place of rest.
Like you, an alien in a land unknown,
I learn to pity woes so like my own."
-- Virgil Aen. 1:631
|"Miltiades ... offered them the use of his house and the rites of hospitality." (Her. 6:35)
"Every man receives every comer and treats him with repasts as long as his ability can possibly furnish them." -- Tacitus Germ. 21
"Hardened with woes, a statue of despair,
To every breath of wind unmoved her hair;
Action and life from every part are gone;
And even her entrails turn to solid stone."
-- Ovid Metam. 6:301
|"The good ... are God's peculiar care,
And such as honour him shall heavenly honour share." -- Ovid Metam. 8:724
"The neighborhood, said he,
Shall justly perish for impiety:
You stand alone exempted; but obey
With speed, and follow where we lead the way:
Leave these accursed, and to the mountain's height
Ascend; nor once look backward in your flight.
An arrow's flight they wanted to the top,
And there secure, but spent with travel, stop;
Then turn their now no more forbidden eyes;
Lost in a lake the floated level lies."
-- Ovid. Metam. 8:626-697
Secular History Confirms Joseph's Seven-Year Famine Which Ended in 1656 BC
Manetho's king lists were CONTEMPORANEOUS as well as SUCCESSIVE. "There were many kings in Egypt at the SAME TIME... some of them were kings of Thinis, some of Memphis, some of Sais, and some of Ethiopia; and there were yet others in other places ... It is very unlikely that they ruled in SUCCESSION to eachother. Rather, some of them ruled in one place, and others in another place" (p.137-138, Eusebius' Chronicon). The framework of all history, which now originated from Egypt, was distorted: “In the arrangement of …Egyptian materials within a framework of consecutive dynasties, all modern historians are dependant upon an ancient predecessor. This was an Egyptian priest and writer Manetho who lived under Ptolemy II Philadelphius (285-246 B.C.). Much of his material has been preserved by Josephus. It is found in "Against Apion" book 1 chapter 14, parts 73-92. Manetho was born at Sebennytus (now Samannud) in the Delta. He rose to be high priest in the temple at Heliopolis. Berossos of Babylon was practically a contemporary, and the two priests became RIVALS in the proclamation of the ANTIQUITY and greatness of their respective lands.” (Jack Finegan, Light for the Ancient Past, pages 65-66). Manetho summarized the history of Egypt under the rule of 30 dynasties, or ruling houses, from the royal cities of Thinis, Thebes, Memphis, Tanis, Elephantine, Heracleopolis, Abydos, Xois, Bubastis, and Sais. It was made to appear that each city and family dominated all Egypt, and each ruler governed a unified Egypt at any given time. This teaching FALSELY established the antiquity of Egypt, but DISTORTED the dating of historical events, and implied a unity in Egyptian political affairs that did not in reality exist. Isaiah warned against trusting in Egypt for help (Isa. 31:1). Just as throughout the history of man in other nations, Egypt was a confederation of several dynastic families from different cities. In any given time, only one being the supreme Pharaoh or several engaged in struggles for balances of power. In biblical accounts, many lands and empires had not one king, but several: “Lo the king of Israel hath hired against us the KINGS of the Hittites and the KINGS of the Egyptians.” (2 Kings 7:6). “At that time did king Ahaz send unto the KINGS of Assyria to help him.” (2 Chronicles 28:16).
Artapanus relates that Joseph, being hated by his brethren, and dreading the plots which they were daily contriving against him, besought the neighboring Arabs to carry him into Egypt. Here he gained so much upon the favor of the king, that he was appointed governor of the whole country; which from previously lying in an uncultivated state, soon assumed under his management a very different aspect. He divided it into inclosures, assigned to the priests their own portion, and became the inventor of standard measures. In this elevated situation, he married Asenath, the daughter of the priest of Heliopolis. Afterwards he entertained his father and all his brethren upon their emigration into Egypt, and assigned to them for their place of residence the city Cefan, the Goshen of Scripture (Eusebius Praep. Evang. 9:23).
Historians tell us
Imhotep was a non-royal, second-in-charge visier who saved Egypt from a 7-year famine by interpreting Pharaoh's dreams (by the power of God) (cp. Gen. 41:9-19), imposed a 20% tax (cp. 41:34), built grain silos (cp. 41:56), bought up all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh (except for the priests' land) (cp. 47:20-22), lived to the age of 110 and was embalmed when he died (cp. 50:26) -- just like Joseph. Imhotep was also the High Priest of Heliopolis paralleling Joseph who married the daughter of the high priest of On (the capital of Heliopolis) (cp. 41:45). We believe the visier Imhotep (Suphis) WAS Joseph and Pharaoh Netjerikhet or Djoser ("the wise") was Joseph's pharaoh. In 1 Kings 6:1 we read that the Exodus took place 480 years before the fourth year of Solomon in 966 BC, which brings us to 1446 BC. Also the covenant made with Abraham was 430 years before the Exodus (Gal. 3:17) in 1876 BC. Isaac was born 25 years later when Abraham was 100 (Gen. 21:5) in 1851 B.C. Isaac was age 60 when Jacob was born (Gen. 25:26) in 1791 B.C. When Jacob was 130, he entered Egypt (Gen. 47:28) in the second year of the famine (45:6) when Joseph was 39 in 1661 B.C. Therefore "Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh" (41:46) in 1670 B.C. at the beginning of the seven years of plenty. The end of a seven-year's famine occurred at the close of year 18 of Djoser I (end of winter 1656).
An account of the calamity is to be found on the rocks of the island of Sihiel, at the First Cataract. No other seven-years' famine is reported during the entire history of the Pharaohs. This is the Biblical seven-years' famine under Joseph. It is at the right time. A modern translation of it may be found in "Biblical Archaeology" by G. Ernest Wright, page 56. The account reads: "Year 18 .... I was in distress on the Great Throne, and those who are in the palace were in Heart's affliction from a very great evil, since the Nile had not come in my time for a space of SEVEN YEARS. Grain was scant, fruits were dried up, and everything which they eat was short .... The infant was wailing; the youth was waiting; the heart of the old man was in sorrow .... The courtiers were in need. The temples were shut up .... Everything was found empty." (Translation by J. A. Wilson in "Ancient Near Eastern Texts", edited by J. B. Pritchard, page 31.) The same inscription goes on: "Pharaoh Djoser asks Imhotep to help him with the COMING SEVEN YEARS of famine" ("Joseph in Egypt" by G. Drake). How did this pharaoh know about the COMING SEVEN YEARS yet in the future if they had not been predicted?
Dynasty III and Dynasty IV of Manetho mention Joseph under the name Suphis (or Souphis or Saophis) -- different Greek spellings from Manetho's commentators. Joseph in Hebrew, is not pronounced with an English "J" sound, but with a "Y" sound. In Manetho's Egyptian transcription of the name only the consonents "s" and "ph" appear -- hence the Greek Souphis or its variant forms. Eratosthenes wrote that the Egyptians had designated Suphis as a "money-getter" or "trafficker" (Fragment 17, "Manetho", by W. G. Waddell, page 219). Dynasty III in Manetho is made up of many rulers which do not appear in the Turin Papyrus. Only the two Djosers appear in each list, and in each case the full length of reign is preserved in Manetho. In Dynasty IV Suphis or Joseph is given 66 years by Manetho. This makes it clear that Dynasty IV -- a foreign dynasty -- parallels Dynasty III. The two records together tell the full story. Only the latter portion of Joseph's reign is preserved in the list of rulers in Dynasty III. The entire period of Joseph's public service is contained in the parallel account. The 66 years of Joseph's public service cover the years 1670-1604. The famine ended in 1656 after the rise in Upper Egypt of the new Nile during the summer of 1657 in Djoser's 18th year. He thus served till 96 years of age, and died at 110 (50:26). Sanchoniathon quotes Manetho as saying that Suphis built the Great Pyramid and also wrote a sacred book (Job) (p.443).
Job Built the Great Pyramid in c.1656 BC
Job was either Jobad of Zerah of Bozrah, king of Edom (Gen. 36:33) or Job, the son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13). His age can be figured out by simple addition of 140 years after his afflictions (Job 42:16-17) plus about 40 more years before his afflictions to account for ten grown-up children (Job 1:2-4,13) making his full life to be at least 180 years long. He must have lived around the time of Jacob since Job used pieces of money called "keshitah" (Job 42:11) and Jacob also bought a parcel of a field from the children of Hamor and paid for it, not by weight, but gave a hundred "keshitahs" (Gen. 33:19). This money wasn't in use in Abraham's day since he paid for the field of Ephron by weight in silver, not number of pieces (Gen. 23:16). Therefore, Job was not as ancient as Abraham, but his long life will not permit us to suppose him much younger than Jacob. According to Manetho, "Suphis reigned 63 years: he built the largest pyramid, which Herodotus says, was constructed by Cheops. He was arrogant toward the gods, and wrote the sacred book, which is regarded by the Egyptians as a work of great importance" (Cory's Fragments, p.102). Suphis lived in the 4th Dynasty. Job's friends were Eliphaz ha-Temani (from Ishmael's son Teman -- Gen. 25:15), Bildad ha-Shuachi (from Keturah's son Shuah -- Gen. 25:2) and Elihu the son of Barachel ha-Buzi (from Nahor's son Buz -- Gen. 22:21).
Secular History Confirms The Plagues and The Identity of the Pharaoh of the Exodus in 1446 BC
The Exodus in 1446 B.C. was 430 years after Abraham entered Canaan in 1876 B.C. "Now the sojourning (in Canaan and Egypt -- 215 years each) of the children of Israel (which here includes Abraham, Isaac and Jacob -- see footnotes in both the Companion Bible and Jerusalem Bible), who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt" (Ex.12:40-41). Josephus says the same thing: "They left Egypt ... on the fifteenth day of the lunar month (Num. 33:3), four hundred and thirty years after our forefather Abraham came into Canaan" (Ant.2:15:2). Both the Samaritan Pentateuch and Septuagint add "and in Canaan" in verse 40. The Septuagint, quoted by Paul in Galatians, says "the sojourning of the sons of Israel who dwelt in the land of Egypt and Canaan was 430 years" because they dwelt in Canaan before they dwelt in Egypt.
Paul also mentions "Jannes and Jambres" (2 Tim. 3:8) as two magicians who withstood Moses. Numenius Apamaeus, a Pythagorean philosopher, in his 3rd book, says: "Jannes and Jambres, interpreters of the mysteries of Egypt, were in great repute at the time when the Jews were sent out of Egypt. It was the opinion of all men that these were inferior to none in the art of magic. For by the common opinion of the Egyptians, these two were chosen to oppose Moses, the ring leader of the Jews. Moses prayers were most prevalent with God. They only were able to undo and frustrate all those most grievous calamities that Moses brought upon all the Egyptians" (cited by Eusebius 1:9 Prepar. Evang. c.8)
Just before Moses was born, "One of those sacred Scribes, who are very sagacious in foretelling future events truly, told the King, that about this time there would a child be born to the Israelites, who, if he were reared, would bring the Egyptian dominion low; and would raise the Israelites: that he would excel all men in virtue; and obtain a glory that would be remembered through all ages. Which thing was so feared by the King, that, according to this man’s opinion, he commanded that they should cast every male child, which was born to the Israelites, into the river, and destroy it ... Thermuthis adopted him for her son ... she put the infant in her father's hands: so he took him and hugged him close to his breast: and, on his daughter’s account, in a pleasant way, put his diadem upon his head: but Moses threw it down to the ground; and, in a puerile mood, he wreathed it round, and tread upon it with his feet; which seemed to bring along with it an evil presage concerning the Kingdom of Egypt. But when the sacred Scribe (2 Tim 3:8 -- Jannes or Jambres) saw this, (he was the person who foretold that his nativity would bring the dominion of that Kingdom low,) he made a violent attempt to kill him; and crying out in a frightful manner, he said, 'This, O King! this child is he of whom God foretold, that if we kill him we shall be in no danger: he himself affords an attestation to the prediction of the same thing, by his trampling upon thy government, and treading upon thy diadem. Take him therefore out of thy way, and deliver the Egyptians from the fear they are in about him; and deprive the Hebrews of the hope they have of being encouraged by him.' But Thermuthis prevented him, and snatched the child away. And the King was not hasty to slay him; God himself, whose providence protected Moses, inclining the King to spare him. He was therefore educated with great care: so the Hebrews depended on him, and were of good hopes that great things would be done by him. But the Egyptians were suspicious of what would follow such his education. Yet because if Moses had been slain, there was no one, neither akin or adopted, that had any oracle on his side, for pretending to the crown of Egypt, and likely to be of greater advantage to them, they abstained from killing him." (Jos. Ant. 2:9:2-7)
The "new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8) was Pharaoh Ahmose (1580-1546 B.C.), who began dynasty 18, who liberated it from the Hyksos. Hebrew hardships came during the rule of Amenhotep I (1546-1525 B.C.) or Thutmose I (1525-1508 B.C.) as the Egyptians remembered Hebrew friendship with the Hyksos. Now Moses was born "fourscore" years before the Exodus (Ex.7:7) or 1527 B.C. He was raised by "the daughter of Pharaoh" (Ex.2:5), who was known as "Queen Hatshepsut" who married her brother named Thutmose II. But when Hatshepsut couldn't produce a male heir to the throne, her brother/husband chose a non-royal mistress named Isis to produce a male heir and named their son Thutmose III. Hatshepsut raised the boy as her own son even though Isis was his real birth mother. She was the daughter of Pharaoh Thutmose I, the grand son-in-law of Ahmose. Moses fled from Thutmose III (c.1482-1450 B.C.), the pharaoh of the oppression (Ex. 2:23), who had been pushed aside by his aunt and step-mother Hatshepsut. Once pharaoh, he organized military campaigns and fought the enemies of the Hyksos who had settled in Canaan. After his famous battle of Megiddo in Canaan in 1479 B.C., he installed district governors in garrison cities throughout Canaan. Amenhotep II (c.1450-1425 B.C.) was the arrogant and haughty pharaoh of the Exodus (Ex.7). The suffix "MOSE" means "SON" (p.115, Keller's Bible As History). Thutmose and Ahmose were sons of Thut (scribal god) and Ah (moon god). But nobody knew who the father of MOSE was, so he was just called MOSES. Or perhaps Moses' name had a prefix like the others (Hatshepsutmose) but Moses "refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter" (Heb.11:24).
"An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the lower Egypt, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea, with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity." (Strabo 16:2). Strabo praises Moses for saying "that the Aegyptians were mistaken in representing the Divine Being by the images of beasts and cattle, as were also the Libyans; and that the Greeks were also wrong in modelling gods in human form ... for who shall dare to make any representation of the Most High?" (16:2:35-37).
"In ancient times there happened a great plague in Egypt, and many ascribed the cause of it to God, who was offended with them because there were many strangers in the land, by whom foreign rites and ceremonies were employed in their worship of the deity. The Egyptians concluded, therefore, that unless all strangers were driven out of the country, they should never be freed from their miseries. Upon this, as some writers tell us, the most eminent and enterprising of those foreigners who were in Egypt, and obliged to leave the country, betook themselves to the coast of Greece, and also to other regions; having put themselves under the command of proper leaders for that purpose. Some of them were conducted by Danaus and Cadmus, who were the most illustrious of the whole. There were besides these a large but less noble body of people, who retired into the province called now Judaea, which was not far from Egypt, and in those times uninhabited. These emigrants were led by Moses, who was superior to all in wisdom and prowess. He gave them laws, and ordained that they should have no images of the gods; because there was only one deity, the Heaven, which surrounds all things, and is Lord of the whole." (Diodorus Sic. 40 apud Photium.).
Tacitus says, "Most authors agree, that a cutaneous disorder spreading through Egypt, king Bocchoris consulted the oracle of Hammon how to obtain relief; the answer was, that he should purge his kingdom, by expelling that race of men who were so hateful to the gods" (Tacitus History 5:3). Justin says, "the Egyptians had the leprosy amongst them; that upon consulting their oracle for a cure, they were directed to send away all the infected persons out of the land, under the conduct of Moses. Moses undertook the command of them, and at his leaving Egypt stole away (asked not borrowed) the Egyptian sacra (jewels of silver and gold -- Ex. 12:35). The Egyptians pursued them in order to recover their sacra, but were compelled by storms to return home again. Moses in seven days passed the desert of Arabia, and brought the people to Sinai." (Justin History 36:2) Eupolemus says Moses was the first wise man, and the inventor of letters; which the Phoenicians received from the Jews, and the Greeks from the Phoenicians (Euseb. Praep. Evang. 9:26).
"It is an ancient report among the Ichthyophagi, who inhabit the shores of the Red Sea, that by a mighty reflux of the sea which happened in former days, the whole gulf became dry land, and appeared green all over: and that the water overflowed the opposite shore, and that all the ground continued bare to the very lowest depth of the gulf, until the water, by an extraordinary high tide, returned to its former channel." (Diodorus Sic. 3:40)
"Moses, to ensure the subjection of the nation to himself for ever, established religious ordinances altogether new, and opposite to those of all other men and countries. The Jews solemnly immolated a ram, in contumely to Jupiter Hammon. The ox, too, is what they sacrifice, a creature which the Egyptians worship for the god Apis." (Tacitus Hist. 5:4).
Secular History Confirms Joshua's Long Day in 1406 BC
The Earth's pole axis tilted till it lay in the plane of Earth's orbit and pointed toward ther sun. Gibeon became Earth's rotational north pole for a day, making the sun appear to stand still. The poles then reversed. As Sophocles said, "Zeus ... changed the course of the sun, causing it to rise in the east and not in the west." (Fragments, III, 5, 738). Plato said, "At certain periods the universe has its present circular motion, and at other periods it revolves in the reverse direction" (Politicus, p.53). Herodotus added, "the Egyptians asserted that the sun had four times deviated from his ordinary course -- twice rising where now he sets, and twice setting where he now rises." (Hist. 2:142). Joshua would not have ordered the sun to stand still early in the morning with ten hours of sunlight left. The sun was going down EAST of the battle scene (Joshua 10:11-13). "When a man fights against him whom God honours and assists, a great and sudden destruction comeds upon him." (Homer's Iliad 17:98)
1. Herodotus was told by an Egyptian priest of a day when "The sun ... had remained low on the horizon ... Two days had been rolled into one. The sun ... instead of crossing the sky, stayed where it was. Whilst the moon ... reduced its speed and climbed slowly, the sun stopped moving" (Crombette's Verdique Historique de l'Egypte Antique). The moon stopped its faster apparent daily motion but kept its orbital speed. "And the moon stayed" (Josh. 10:13). It only moved 13.2° in 24 hours since it has a period of 27.3 days.
2. "The celebrated son of Hyperion (Helios -- the sun) stopped, for a long time, his swift-footed horses." (Homer Hymn. in Pallad. 13) "When Sol himself leans downward from the sky, Beholds the virgins with enraptured eye, Detains his chariot, whence new glories pour, Prolongs the day, and stops the flying hour." (Callimachus H. in Dian. 180) "The lazy god of day forgets to rise, And everlasting night pollutes the skies" (Lucan. Phars. 6:462). "Detained by Jove, nor ever did the day, So long, before, survive his setting ray." (Stat. Theb. 5:177)
3. West African story of a long night where the owl overslept and did not awaken the sun (Aardema, V. 1975. Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Ears [NY: Dial Press]).
4. Chinese History reports that at the time of their seventh emperor, Yao, the sun did not set for ten days in the year of the world 2554 (Martin. Sinie. Histor. 1:25). Therefore, 3960 BC - 2554 = 1406 BC.
5. The Ojibways tell of a long night without any light (Olcott, W.T., 1914, Sun Lore of All Ages: A Collection of Myths and Legends Concerning the Sun and its Worship, p.212).
6. The Wyandot Indians told missionary Paul Le Jeune of a long night (ibid. p.215).
7. The Dogrib Indians of the northwest tell of a day when the sun was caught at noon and it instantly became dark (ibid. p.216).
8. The Omahas say that once the sun was caught in a trap by a rabbit who checked his traps at the break of dawn, presumably before sunrise (ibid. p.217).
9. The Bungee Indians from Lake Winnipeg area of Canada also tell of a long night (ibid. p.218). Obviously the "Joshua's Long Day" story didn't migrate all around the world or it would everywhere be called a "long day."
10. "At long last, the sun burst forth ... But the sun, despite his brilliant light, did not move; he hung on the edge of the sky, apparently unwilling to begin his appointed task" (Caso A. 1937. The Religion of the Aztecs, pp. 15-16).
11. "They did not sleep; they remained standing and great was the anxiety of their hearts and their stomachs for the coming of the dawn and the day ... 'Oh,... if we only could see the rising of the sun! What shall we do now?' ... They talked, but they could not calm their hearts which were anxious for the coming of the dawn" (Goetz and Morley, 1972. Popul Vuh: The Sacred Book of the Quiche Maya, pp. 172-190).
12. In Peru, the sun was hidden for nearly 20 hours in the third year of the reign of Titu Yupanqui Pachacuti II because of sin in the land. (Z. Stichin, The Lost Realms [NY: Avon Books]) Titu ruled about 1400 BC.
13. On the island of Lacomba in the eastern Fiji Islands, J.G. Frazer tells of a tradition of a long sunset at one time (Frazer, Golden Bough 1:316).
Secular History Confirms That
Canaan Fled From "Joshua the Robber" to Libya in 1406 BC
From Procopius of Caesarea, "History of the Wars" Book IV, "The Vandalic War," Capt.X, 12ff (Loeb Class, London, 1916) we read, "it is necessary to tell from the beginning whence the nations of the MOORS came to Libya, and how they settled there. When the Hebrews had withdrawn from Egypt, and had come near the boundaries of Palestine, Moses, a wise man, who was their leader on the journey, died, and the leadership was passed on to Joshua, the son of Nun, who led this people into Palestine, and, by displaying a valour in war greater than that natural to a man, gained possession of the land. And after overthrowing all the nations he easily won the cities, and he seemed to be altogether invincible. Now at that time the whole country along the sea from Sidon as far as the boundaries of Egypt was called PHOENICIA. And one king in ancient times held sway over it, as is agreed by all who have written the earliest accounts of the PHOENICIANS. In the country there dwelt very populous tribes, the GERGESITES and the JEBUSITES and some others with other names by which they are called in the history of the Hebrews. Now when these nations saw that the invading general was an irresistible prodigy, they emigrated from their ancestral homes and made their way to Egypt, which adjoined their country. And finding there no place sufficient for them to dwell in, since there has been a great population in Egypt from ancient times, they proceeded to Libya. And they established numerous cities and took possession of the whole of Libya as far as the Pillars of Heracles, and there they have lived even up to my time, using the PHOENICIAN tongue. They also built a fortress in Numidia, where now is the city called Tigisis. In that place are two columns made of white stone near by the great spring, having PHOENICIAN letters cut in them which say in the PHOENICIAN tongue: 'We are they who fled from before the face of Joshua, the robber, the son of Nun.' There were also other nations settled in Libya before the MOORS, who on account of having been established there from of old were said to be children of the soil. And because of this they said that Antaeus, their king, who wrestled with Heracles in Clipea (i.e. Clypea, or Aspis, now Kalibia, on the Carthaginian coast) was a son of the earth. And in later times those who removed from PHOENICIA with Dido came to the inhabitants of Libya as to kinsmen. And they willingly allowed them to found and hold Carthage. But as time went on, Carthage became a powerful and populous city. And a battle took place between them and their neighbors, who, as has been said, had come from Palestine before them and are called MOORS at the present time, and the Carthaginians defeated them and compelled them to live a very great distance away from Carthage. Later on the Romans gained the supremacy over all of them in war, and settled the MOORS at the extremity of the inhabited land of Libya, and made the Carthaginians and the other Libyans subject and tributary to themselves. And after this the MOORS won many victories over the Vandals and gained possession of the land now called Mauretania, extending from Gadira as far as the boundaries of the Caesarea (i.e. from Tangier, opposite Cadiz, to Algiers....) as well as the most of Libya which remained. Such, then, is the story of the settlement of the MOORS in Libya."
The famous Augustine of Hippo, in North Africa, called himself a Canaanite and stated that the inhabitants of Carthage called themselves Canaanites even in the fifth century A.D. (The Phoenicians and the West by Aubet, p.10).
Greek Civilization Parallelled Hebrew Civilization
Greek civilization parallelled Hebrew civilization in many ways. (1.) The ALPHABETS are similar in letter names and appearance: Aleph - Alpha, Beth - Beta, Gimel - Gamma, Daleth - Delta. (2.) HERCULES (Herod. 2:44) was SAMSON who slew a lion with his bare hands (Judges 13:6; 15:4). (3.) The Greek SEVEN-HEADED HYDRA slain corresponds to the heads of LEVIATHAN crushed (Ps. 74:14; Rev. 12,17,18). (4.) Colchians practiced CIRCUMCISION (Diod. Sic. 1:55) just like Israelites (Gen. 17:10-14). (5.) Greeks "CUT a TRUCE" (Eurip. Hel. 1235; Her. 7:39) "DIVIDING the faithful COVENANTS" (Homer's Iliad 2:124; Odyss. 24:483; Livy 40:6) just as in Abraham's day, "a burning lamp passed between those pieces" (Gen. 15:17; 1 Ki. 2:23). (6.) "Abram gave him a TENTH of everything" (Gen. 14:20) just as "Each man received his share of the money that had been raised by the sale of the captives, the TENTH PART of which they consecrated to Apollo, and to Diana of Ephesus." (Xen. Anab. 5:3; Xen. Hist. Graec. 4:3). Jove is wroth with men who "rob the orphan of his dues" (Hesiod Oper. et dies 328). (7.) Hesiod said, "The SEVENTH DAY is SACRED" (Hes. apud Euseb. Praep. Evan. 13) just as the Bible does (Ex. 20:8). "it was SATURN'S DAY, and therefore I delayed" (Latins thought it improper for business because unpropitious). (Tibul. 1: Eleg. 3:18) "Diogenes, the grammarian, used to hold public disquisitions (discussions) at Rhodes every SABBATH DAY." (Suet. Tiber. 32) (8.) "The gods, pitying the naturally laborious race of man, have ordained for it as remissions from labor, the returns of FEAST DAYS in honour of the gods." (Plat. de leg. 2:1) "Let servants enjoy the SACRED FESTIVALS, their toils being remitted, for therefore they were appointed at certain seasons." (Cic. de leg. 2:8) paralleling the biblical FEAST DAYS (Lev. 23). (9.) A great HOST is compared with the SAND of the sea (Iliad 2:800; 9:385; Gen. 32:12; Judges 7:12). (10.) Furthermore, Judges 1:6-7 tells of MUTILATING or cutting off the thumbs and big toes of captured heroes so as to render them unfit for warfare. Plutarch, Life of Lysander: 9 tells us that the Athenians cut off the right thumb of prisoners so that they could no longer wield the spear but only ply the oar. (11.) King Agamemnon disliked Calchas "a PROPHET of EVIL" (Iliad 1:106) just as King Ahab said, "I hate him (Micaiah) because he PROPHESIES NOT GOOD but evil concerning me" (1 Ki. 22:8). (12.) Odysseus CONSULTED his departed SPIRIT in Hades (Odyssey 10:490-5; 11:89-137) just as Saul had the ghost of Samuel called up from Sheol (1 Sam. 28:3-20). (13.) Paris suggested that Hector set himself "in the midst" to engage in SINGLE COMBAT with Menelaus (Iliad 3:69) to settle the war paralleling Goliath who was the "man in the midst" in 1 Samuel 17:4,23 as the two armies watched. (14.) God told Gideon by vision to penetrate and SPY the enemy camp with his attendant at night (Judges 7:9) much like Agamemnon who rises at night (Iliad 10:1) and takes two able men penetrates the enemies' defenses in the dark for information prior to the assault on the morrow (Iliad 10:254). (15.) Conquerors ripped open pregnant women KILLING their UNBORN FETUSES (2 Ki. 8:12; 15:16; Amos 1:13; Hos. 13:16) just as Agamemnon advised Menelaus to not spare any male Trojan fetus in the womb (Iliad 6:55-62). (16.) Death by STONING was common to both cultures (Ex. 17:4; 19:13; 21:28). This is what "donning a coat of stones" refers to in Iliad 3:57 (cf. Aeschylus, Agamemnon: 872). (17.) Those grief-stricken Israelites WALLOW in the DUST (Jer. 6:26; 25:34; Ez. 27:30; Micah 1:10) just as Priam "grovels in the filth" for the slain Hector (Iliad 22:414). (18.) Just as King Jehu said, "Tend to this cursed one (Jezebel) and BURY her, for she is the daughter of a king" (2 Ki. 9:34), so also burial after one day of weeping is advocated by Homer (Iliad 19:228:-9; see also Antigone: 205-6, 697-8, 1017, 1081-2; Odyssey 11:72-78). (19.) Just as Melchizedek was both KING and PRIEST (Gen. 14:18), so also "In old times, kings themselves performed the most and the greatest of the sacred rites." (Plutarch Quaest. Rom. 63). (20.) "Come not near your wives" (Ex. 19:15) parallels PURITY through WASHING and avoiding sex using "separate couches" (Ovid Fasti 2:328). Also "first dip yourself in a running stream" (Livy 1:45) and "in running water PURIFY your hands" (Tibul. 2:1) parallel "the doctrine of baptisms" (Heb. 6:2). (21.) Both the horse and mule were UNCLEAN in both societies (Tacitus History 4:60; Lev. 11 & Deut. 14). In Pontus they abstained "from SWINE'S FLESH" in the city of Comana (Strabo 12:8). "Numa ordered that FISH WITHOUT SCALES should not be served up at the festivals of the gods." (Pliny Hist. 32:10). Aeschylus asked, "How can BIRD THAT PREYS on bird be pure?" (Suppl. 226). Herodotus mentions that the Nasamones EAT LOCUSTS (4:172). (22.). FIRSTFRUITS of the harvest given to God (Ex. 23:19) parallels "Every year to thee (Delos) are sent tithes and FIRSTFRUITS." (Callim. H. in Delon. 278) (23.) The streams of IARDANUS in Crete (Odyssey 3:291-2) and the streams of IARDANUS in Elis (Iliad 7:135) correspond to the river "Jordan" in Palestine (Heb. yarden; Sept. Iordanes) which merely means "the river." (24.) DESCENT from a TREE or ROCK is found in Odyssey 19:163 as well as Jeremiah 2:27 where people "say to the tree, 'You are my father' and to the stone, 'You have borne me.'" (25.) A prostitute was known as a "STRANGE" woman in Israel (Judges 11:2) and also at Athens where Pamphilus was married to a STRANGER woman (Ter. Andr. 1:1). (26.) Jephthah accidentally VOWED to sacrifice his daughter (Judges 11:36) just as "Agamemnon, when he had VOWED to Diana the loveliest thing that should be born that year in his kingdom, sacrificed Iphigenia." (Cicero de off. 3:25). Iphigenia even sounds like Jephthagenia. (see The Common Background Of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations by Cyrus Gordon and Testimony of Heathen to Truths of Holy Writ by Millington)
Why this common background? Because they were the SAME PEOPLE.
After Troy Was Destroyed (1184 BC), the Trojans Sailed to England and Built a New Troy (London) in 1100 BC
JUDAH got Tamar pregnant with twins. As Genesis 38:27-30 says: "Now it came to pass, at the time for giving birth, that behold, twins were in her womb. And so it was, when she was giving birth, that the one put out his hand; and the midwife took a scarlet thread and bound it on his hand, saying, “This one came out first.” (RED HAND of Ulster) Then it happened, as he drew back his hand, that his brother came out unexpectedly; and she said, “How did you break through? This breach be upon you!” Therefore his name was called Perez (Breach). Afterward his brother came out who had the scarlet thread on his hand. And his name was called Zerah (Seed)."
They were called Pharez and Zarah. ZARAH had no children when he went down into Egypt with his grandfather Jacob (Gen.46:12). The descendants of ZARAH, both sons and grandsons, are mentioned in 1 Chronicles 2:6-8 and 1 Kings 4:30-31 as "ETHAN the Ezrahite (i.e. Zerahite), and HEMAN, and CHALCOL, and DARDA, the sons of MAHOL" (1 Ki.4:31). But the biblical geneology of ZARAH ends with this third generation indicating the departure of ZARAH'S line from Israel while Israel was in Egypt 400 years (Gen.15:13). Where did they go? In Crete we find Mount IDA and inhabitants called IDAEANS which sound similar to the word JUDAEANS (Tacitus' History 5:2). A YARDANUS River (Jordan) was also in Crete. They became known as the MILESIANS of Istria (Herod. 2:33) after MAHOL. They settled in a seaport called MILETUS in IONIA, in Asia Minor. When the Persians destroyed this city in 494 B.C., many MILESIANS escaped to Ireland and Scotland. One of the islands west of Scotland is called IONA. Primitive Greek received a variety of exotic words from the Celtic language (Liter. Antiq. of Greece, sect. 4).
The Egyptian command to "cast every male child into the river to destroy it," would drive the younger generation to emigrate and escape Egypt for Greece and they became known as Hellenes, from the Anglo-Saxon word "Helanes" which means "of the concealed".
HEMAN was the founder of TYRE (p.80, British Israel Bible Notes by Bell).
CALCOL (Cecrops) took a colony of Saits out of Egypt in 1581 BC using the ships of Dan and they settled ATTICA and built TWELVE towns which became the kingdom of ATHENS (Strabo 9). He taught the men to have one wife, rather than share all women in common (Suidas). After his death, the Areopagus Court at ATHENS was instituted with TWELVE judges (Apollodor. 3:13:2). The time when CECROPS became king of Attica may be determined from the Parian Chronicon, which records that CECROPS reigned at ATHENS 1318 years before that Chronicle was composed (263 BC according to Ussher) which fixes the beginning of Cecrop's reign to 1581 BC. "Certain of the rulers of ATHENS were originally Egyptians" (Diodorus Siculus 1:1; 1:28:6). In Spain CALCOL established "ZARAHGASSA" meaning "The Stronghold of ZARAH" now called "Saragossa in the Ebro Valley. "Behold, I will lift up My hand in an oath to the nations (RED HAND of Ulster). And set up My standard for the peoples" (Isaiah 49:22 NKJV).
COLCHIA, a region in ancient Greece, gets its name from CHALCOL. Some of CHALCOL'S descendants founded the colony of COLCHIS about 1480 B.C. named after CALCOL and the inhabitants practiced CIRCUMCISION (Diodorus 1:55). The speech and manners of the COLCHIANS were Egyptian (Her. 2:103). We also find the city of CHALCIS in Greece. CALCOL became the founder of the kingly dynasties of Western Europe. The name of COL is familiar to all students and geneologists in Western Europe, particularly in Spain, France, Ireland, and Scotland; indeed, in England also we have old King COL. CALCOL was the ancestor of the Irish and Scottish kings.
In 1518 BC, Cadmus sailed from Sidon and seized a part of the country called BOEOTICA in Greece in which he built the city of THEBES, and named the citadel Cadmea (Marmor. Arund. Ep. vii). Cadmus also migrated to THESSALY (Strabo 9:2:3). Cadmus was the great grandson of Chalcol (1 Ki.4:31; 1 Ch.3:6), brother of Darda, who was the great great grandson of Judah. Cadmus discovered the art of working metals and making armour (Pliny 7:56) and introduced Phoenician letters into Greece with sixteen letters (Diod. Sic. book 4). The Milesian royal family came from Crete to MILETUS. CRETE was JEWISH (Tacitus' History 5:2) and gave their laws to SPARTA (Her.1:65).
"DARDA" (KJV margin of 1 Chr.2:6) called "DARDANUS" by Josephus, was the Egyptian founder of TROY (and the Kingdom of Priam) on the southern shore of the strait called "DARDANELLES." DARDANUS founded DARDANIA (Iliad 20:215-216). Pliny says the "Moesia (W. coast of Black Sea) contains the DARDANI" (3:25:149). He also says that the "savage tribe of the DARDANI" live on the northwest coast of Greece (4:1:3). Strabo says the "DARDANII" live among the Illyrians (7:5:6) (YUGOSLAVIA). In Greek Mythology, "DARDANUS" is a son of Jupiter and Electra and founded the kingdom of TROY. The "TROJANS were called DARDANI and DARDANIDAE" (Lemp. Clas. Dict., p.193). The gate of Troy was surmounted by a statue of a White Horse. That is why the Greeks gave them a Trojan Horse. (p.51, A Peculiar People by Proctor). Troy was destroyed by the Greeks 408 years before the first Olympiad -- in 1184 BC.
The grandson of DARDA was named Tros and called the country Troy and the people became known as Trojans. His three sons were Ilus, Assaracus and Ganymede. Ilus was the grandfather of Priam, king of Troy. Assarachus was the ancestor of Aeneas the father of Brutus, from whom the British kings are descended. Brutus, the son of Aeneas, sailed from Troy with a fleet of 332 ships. When Brutus arrived at Malta, he enquired of the oracle of Diana the fate of his nation and family. The question and answer, which was written in archaic Greek in the temple of Diana in Caer Troia (London) has been versified by Pope as follows: "Goddess of woods! Look upon us on earth! unfold our fate, And say what region is our destined seat, When shall we next thy lasting temples raise, And choirs of virgins celebrate thy praise?" The oracle's reply was: "Brutus! there lies beyond the Gallic bounds An Island, which the western sea surrounds, By ancient giants held, now few remain To bar thy entrance or obstruct thy reign, To reach that happy shore thy sails employ, There fate decrees to build a second Troy, And found an empire in thy royal line Which time shall ne'er destroy nor bounds confine."
Brutus landed in Britain in 1100 BC and built Caer Troia which later was corrupted to Trinovantum, then Caer Lud (Geoffrey's British History) "The Britons themselves claimed to be descendants of the ancient TROJANS ... The religion of the Britons was identical with that held by all the disciples of the PELAGIANS ... The identity of the British Druids with the HYPERBOREANS of the Greeks is clear and distinct" (J.P. Yeatman, Early English History, pp.116-120).
When the city of TROY was overthrown in the famous "Siege of TROY," Aeneas, the last of the royal blood, took what was left of his nation and traveled with them into Europe. His son Brutus, on going to Malta, was there advised by an oracle to re-establish his people in "The Great White Island" (BRITAIN so-called because of the white cliffs of Dover). The oracle said, "the whole earth shall be subject" to the race of Brutus (Milton's History of Britain). This advice was recorded in the archaic Greek on the Temple of Diana in Caer TROIA (New TROY), and was later verified by the "pope." The king landed at Torbay. An historic stone still stands in the town of Totnes commemorating his coming. He built a new capital city and named it "Caer TROIA" or New TROY (1100 B.C.), later called TRINOVANTUM. Still later the Romans called it LONDINIUM, now known as LONDON. Brutus-the-Trojan named BRITAIN after himself (Historia Britonum, Nennius 10; also Geoffrey of Monmouth). Caesar's Commentaries tell of a people called TRINOBANTES (Gaul 5:20) living in Middlesex and Hertfordshire which seems to confirm this story.
The ancient Annals Of Clonmacnoise state, "The most part of our Irish chronicles agree that the sons of MILETUS came to this land in the beginning of the destruction of Troy" (pp. 27-28). "The Sacred Banner of the MILESIANS was a flag on which was represented a dead serpent and the ROD of MOSES" (p.12, A.M. Sullivan's The Story of Ireland).The letter from Cassibelaun, king of the Britons to Caius Julius Caesar (given in full by Geoffrey of Monmouth) says, " the same vein of NOBILITY flows from AENEAS in the Britons and Romans" (Historia Britonum 4:2). Virgil's Aeneid written about 19 B.C., tells about Trojans under AENEAS who founded Rome.
After the Trojan War, Phrygia was utterly devastated by Cimmerians. The Phrygians migrated into Europe. The Greek name Phryges was gradually changed to Phraggoi. When the Romans encountered them, they applied the Roman word for Freemen -- Franci -- Franks in English. Procopius, in his Roman history, called the Franks Phraggoi (III, 3, 1). They finally settled in France. Is it only a coincidence that the capital of their new land is called Paris -- the name of the famous Trojan or Phrygian hero Paris, son of Priam? Just as we find the city of TROY in PHRYGIA next to GALATIA, so also we find TROYES in France. Just as PARIS was a Trojan war hero, so also we find PARIS, France. The Greeks called the Franks FRAGGOI. "GOI" means "People" in Hebrew and "FROEG" means "Hebraic" in Saxon (p.24, Senior's British Israelites). Hence the slang term "FROG" for a Frenchman. The Greeks would pronounce FRAGGOI as "FRANCI" today since they put an "n" before a double "g."
Archbishop Ussher supposes the Parian Chronicon to have been composed 263 BC; and the Arundelian marble tells us that Danaus's coming into Greece was 1247 years earlier -- in 1510 BC. (p.163, Shuckford's Sacred and Profane History) In 1510 BC Danaus seized upon the kingdom of ARGOS. Petavius in his "History of the World" says, "Danaus was the son of Bela, a sojourner in Egypt. Bilhah was a wife of Israel, and the mother of Dan, who was directed to say to Pharaoh, "for to sojourn in the land (of Egypt) are we come.'" Hecatoeus of Abdera says, "The most distinguished of the expelled foreigners followed Danaus and Cadmus into Greece from Egypt; but the greater number were led by Moses into Judaea." All writers agree in making Danaus the tenth king of Argos (Tatian. Orat. ad Graec. 59, p.131; Eusebius in Chron., p.24; Pausanias in Corinthiacis, p.112). W.E. Gladstone says, "The Danai of Greece, and the Dardanai of Troy were originally one family." According to Homer's Odyssey, the Danites were in Britain in 1200 BC. Perseus who was descended from Danaus, formed the kingdom of MYCENE.
The Heraclidae, or the clan of Hercules (Danites of Samson), sailed to the Peloponnesus from Pelusium, Egypt. They seized upon Lacedemon, Argos and Mycene. In 1 Maccabees 12:20-22 we read that the SPARTANS and JEWS are both ABRAHAM'S children. Josephus repeats this episode and adds an important detail: "Areus, King of the Lacedemonians, to Onias, sendeth greeting ... we have discovered that both the JEWS and the Lacedemonians (SPARTANS) are of one stock, and are derived from the kindred of ABRAHAM ... This letter is four-square; and the seal is an EAGLE, with a DRAGON in his claws" (Ant.12:4:10). That is the tribal emblem of DAN! These "DISPERSED among the GREEKS" (John 7:35) had to be ISRAELITES. All Greeks were called "DANAANS" by Homer (Strabo 12:8:7) even though many were merely PELEG'S branch (Strabo 8:6:9) and not necessarily DANITE Israel. Greek traditions tell us that "the chiefs of the DORIANS are really genuine Egyptians" (Her. 6:53).They were Manasseh from "DOR and her towns" (Joshua 17:11). They spoke "DORIC" Greek. The Peloponnesus was for the most part peopled by Dorians. A tribe of wandering Dorians inhabited the coasts of Gaul (Ammianus Marcellinus 15:9). The Leleges and Megareans, who both came from Egypt, established themselves in Megara (Pausan. 1:95,106).
Agenor and Phoenix also led colonies from Phoenicia to Greece.
Spanning the Gap of History Until We Arrive At Ptolemy's Canon in 747 BC
What caused this large gap in ancient history? Certainly one cause was the burning of the Library of Alexandria during the civil wars of Julius Caesar in 48 BC. It was burned again by Saracens in the seventh century. The books were used for common fuel in fires. Therefore we will span the gap:
1. Varro reckons the interval between the Flood (2304 BC) and the first Olympiad (776 BC) to be about 1600 years (p.84, Sanchoniathon).
Josephus also says that "more than one thousand three hundred years" elapsed from Menes (Misraim) until Solomon (Ant. 8:6:2). If Solomon was born in 990 BC, then 1300 years before that, brings us to 2290 BC. and Misraim reigned 62 years making Nimrod's accession about 2228 BC.
More precisely, several independent methods of reckoning place the beginning of Nimrod's reign at 2234-2233 B.C. (Garnier's Worship of the Dead, pp. 280-285; see also Pliny NH 7:56 and Rawlinson's Herodotus vol. 1, essay 6, pp.434-435).
Callisthenes, a relation and disciple of Aristotle, who accompanied Alexander the Great on his eastern expedition, was told by the priests of the temple of Belus in Babylon, that they had preserved a series of Chaldean astronomical calculations, which extended over a space of 1903 years before that time. Alexander conquered Babylon in 330 BC. These records therefore must have begun 2233 BC.
Diodorus says that from Ninyas (son of Nimrod and Semiramus) to Sardanapalus, the Assyrian Empire continued 1360 years (Diodorus Siculus 2:77). Since Sardanapalus died in 745 BC, that would place Ninyas reign at 2105 BC. There were in fact two Assyrian Empires: Ninyas to Sardanapalus was the first. It was divided between Arbaces of Media and Belesis of Babylon; and from then till the destruction of Nineveh in 612 BC by Nabopolassar was the second.
Diodorus Siculus 1:29 says that after the time of Menes (Misraim) 52 (Egyptian) kings reigned a space of over 1400 years (actually 1370 years from Menes to Sesostris according to Sir John Marsham's tables of the Theban Kings) where nothing historically noteworthy occurred. That time period ended with Sesostris or Shishak raiding Jerusalem (2 Chr. 12:9) in the fifth year of Rehoboam (926 BC) since Diodorus says Sesostris performed the most illustrious actions, far exceeding all before him (1:34). For Herodotus says "the other kings, they gave no account of their deeds, nor ... were in any degree of renown, except one, the last of them, Moeris" (2:100-104) -- who constructed a lake. Moeris was the immediate predecessor of Sesostris. Then Herodotus talks in detail about the conquests of Sesostris. Josephus agrees that Sesostris was Shishak (Antiq. 8:4 p.368).
There could hardly be any transition from Biblical to secular history without Ptolemy's Canon (Almagest) which unintentionally confirms the metallic statue of Daniel 2. It begins with the reign of Nabonassar: 26 Feb. 747 BC. and is the starting point of the "SEVEN TIMES" of Daniel 4. It is the most ancient verifiable secular history we have available today.
The (Seven) "Times of the Gentiles" (Lev. 26:28; Luke 21:24) Begins With Babylon -- Feb. 26, 747 BC
All ancient nations began to reckon their separate histories from the Tower of Babel when mankind was divided into linguistic groups around 2203 BC (Gen. 10:25;11:10-16,32). Ptolemy's Canon only goes back as far as the king of Babylon known as Nabonassar who ascended the throne Feb. 26, 747 B.C. (Ptolemy's Almagest). If we add 1222.5 solar years (1260 lunar years x 354.37/365.24 = 1222.48), we arrive at the fall of Romulus Augustulus, Aug. 22nd, 476 A.D. Adding 1260 lunar years more brings us to 1698 when the two treaties that limit the two "little horns" are bisected: the completion of the Protestant Revolution at the Peace of Ryswick Sept. 20, 1697 and the Peace of Carlowitz Jan. 26th, 1699 A.D. If we add 1260 solar years to 747 B.C., we arrive at the accession of Hormisdas in 514 A.D., the first dope to speak of papal supremacy. Adding 1260 solar years more brings us to 1774 -- the royal accession of Louis XVI who lost his life in the French Revolution. Also the defeat of the Turkish army by Russia resulting in the Peace of Kainarge occurred in 1774; and the Roman Catholic Jesuits were banished by Clement in 1774.
The 2520 years is the "(seven) Times of the Gentiles" (Luke 21:24) or "seven times" punishment (Lev. 26:28) or "Mene [1000 gerahs], Mene [1000 gerahs], Tekel [20 gerahs], U Pharsin [500 gerahs]" (Dan. 5:25; Ez. 45:12) divided in half by a "deadly wound" in 476 A.D. (Rev. 13:4-5) symbolized by an angel dividing a river at mid-point (Dan. 12:5-7). The four Gentile Empires of Daniel 2 have possessed the Holy Land for a combined total of "42 MONTHS" or 1260 days which symbolize 1260 years (Num. 14:34; Ez. 4:6). Babylon possessed Palestine for 90 years, from 624 to 534 B.C. Medo-Persia for 200 years, from 534 to 334 B.C. Greece for 304 years from 334 to 30 B.C. and Rome for 666 years from the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. to the Saracen conquest in 636 A.D. Now 90 + 200 + 304 + 666 = 1260 years. Just as the Gentiles "tread under foot" the physical Jerusalem for 42 months (1260 days), so also they "shall" "tread under foot" the "New Jerusalem" or all TRUE CHRISTIANS for 1260 YEARS because "HEAVENLY JERUSALEM" is the "ASSEMBLY and CHURCH of the FIRSTBORN" wherever they may dwell (Heb. 12:22-23). From when Omar the Turk took Jerusalem in 637 A.D., add 1260 more years to get 1897 when the Zionist Movement was founded in Basel, Switzerland by Jews of all nations desiring to settle in the Holy Land. The fig tree represents the Jewish people (Matt. 24:32-33). When they became a nation, Christ's return is imminent. From 606 AD when Emperor Phocas decreed the Dope "Universal Bishop" till 1866 AD when the last two Protestants were burned at the stake by papal decree at Barletta, Italy is exactly 1260 years. From 610 AD when Emperor Phocas died till 1870 when the city of Rome was captured and the Dope lost his temporal power is exactly 1260 years. Constantine ascended the throne in 312 AD. Claiming to be Christian, but really Catholic, he persecuted "heretics." Exactly 1260 years later, Huguenots were massacred in 1572.
"The gods know all things and foreshow them to whom they please by auguries, by omens, and in dreams." (Xen. Hipparch. 9.).
Secular History Confirms Assyrian King Sardanapalus Defeated in 747 BC (Nahum 1-3; Zeph. 2:13-14)
The Assyrian Empire was founded c.2059 BC and lasted till the reign of Sardanapalus, the 31st sovereign in 747 BC. a period of about 1300 years. Diodorus gives a particular account of the taking of Nineveh by Arbaces, assisted by the Bactrians, and of its subsequent destruction. Arbaces was incited to this by a famous Babylonian priest named Belesis (perhapsd the Beladan of 2 Kings 2:12), who pretended by interpreting the stars to promise a successful issue to the adventure. Arbaces was thrice defeated by the king Sardanapalus; but afterwards, intercepting an army of Bactrians who were on their way to reinforce the city, he persuaded the leaders to join him in his revolt, and by their help his next attempt was successful.
"It happened that the king of Assyria, not knowing anything of the revolt of the Bactrians, and elated by his former successes, was indulging in idleness and revelling; and had prepared wine and other things necessary for feasting his soldiers. While his whole army was now feasting and revelling, Arbaces, receiving intelligence from some deserters of the carelessness and intemperance of the enemy, fell upon them, easily broke into their camp, slew great numbers of them, and drove the remainder back into the city." (Diodorus Siculus 2:26) As Nahum 1:10 says, "For while they be folden together as thorns, and while they are drunken as drunkards, they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry."
"The rebels twice defeated the king's forces, once in the open field, and the second time before the walls of the city; in which last engagement Salaimenes was killed, and almost all his army destroyed, some being cut off in the retreat, and the rest, with few exceptions, being driven headlong into the river Euphrates; the number of the slain was so great that the river was dyed over with blood, and retained that colour for a great distance afterwards." (Diodorus Siculus 2:26) As Nahum 2:3 says, "The shield of his mighty men is made red, the valiant men are in scarlet: the chariots shall bed with flaming torches in the day of his preparation, and thye fir trees shall be terribly shaken."
"The king being afterwards besieged, many of the nations revolted to the confederates, so that Sardanapalus perceiving that the kingdom was in great peril, sent away his three sons and two daughters, with a great deal of treasure, into Paphlagonia, to Cotta the governor there, who was his friend: he also sent posts into all the provinces of the kingdom in order to raise soldiers, and made every other preparation to enable him to endure a siege. He was encouraged in this by an ancient prophecy that 'Nineveh could never be taken until the river should become the enemy of the city.' The king was also very careful to furnish the inhabitants with everything necessary, and neglected nothing that could be done for the defense of the city. The siege continued two years, during which time the enemy gained no advantage against it." (Diodorus Siculus 2:26) As Nahum 2:5 says, "He shall recount his worthies: they shall stumble in their walk; they shall make haste to the wall thereof, and the defense shall be prepared."
"In the third year of the siege the Euphrates, overflowing with continual rains, rose above its banks, and entering the city carried away a portion of the wall, making a breach twenty furlongs in length. The revolters entered through the breach and took the city." (Diodorus Siculus 2:27) As Nahum 2:6 says, "The gates of the river shall be opened".
"The king, that he might not fall into the hands of his enemies, caused a huge fire of wood to be made in the court of his palace, and having heaped upon it all his gold, silver, and royal apparel, and enclosed his eunuchs and concubines in an apartment within the pile, caused it to be set on fire, and burnt himself and them together." (Diodorus Siculus 2:27) As Nahum 2:6 says, "the palace shall be dissolved."
"Belesis pretended that he had made a vow to Belus that when Sardanapalus should be conquered and his palace consumed, he would carry the ashes to Babylon and there raise a mound near to his temple; but his true reason for desiring to do this was that he had heard of the gold and silver which lay hidden among the ruins. Arbaces being ignorant of the plot, granted him permission to carry away the ashes: upon which Belesis prepared shipping and took away great treasures of gold and silver to Babylon." (Diodorus Siculcu 2:28) As Nahum 2:9 says, "Take ye the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold: for there is none end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture.
"Notwithstanding the immense strength of Nineveh, whose walls, according to Diodorus, were 100 feet high and broad enough for three chariots to go abreast upon them, with fifteen hundred towers at proper distances in the walls, each 200 feet in height, Nineveh was so totally destroyed that the very site of it is hardly to be recognized. Lucian, who was a native of Samosata, on the Euphrates, must have known whether there were any remains of Nineveh or not, and he wrote as folllows: 'Nineveh is so completely destroyed, that it is not even possible to say where it stood." (Lucian, Contempl. 23) As Nahum 3:17 says, "their place is not known where they (are)."
Zephaniah 2:13-14 says, "He will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria, and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations."
Ezekiel 31 says, "Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Lebanon with fair branches, and with a shadowing shroud, and of a high stature; and his top was among the thick boughs. The waters made him great, the deep set him on high with her rivers running round about his plants ... Therefore thus saith the Lord God, Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height ... I have therefore delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen ... I have driven him out for his wickedness. And strangers, the terrible of the nations, have cut him off, and have left him ... Upon his ruin shall all the fowls of the heaven remain, and all the beasts of the field shall be upon his branches ... I made the nations to shake at the sound of his fall."
Secular History Confirms the Destruction of 185,000 Assyrians in Sennacherib's Army in One Night (2 Ki. 19:35; Isa. 37:36; 2 Chr. 32:21) in c. 701 BC
The Biblical account of Hezekiah (701 BC) is confirmed by Herodotus 2:141 where Sennacherib's Assyrian army is defeated by field mice with Bubonic Plague. "When Sennacherib, king of Arabia and Assyria, attacked Egypt with a mighty army, the soldiers of Sethos (having been ill-treated by him) refused to assist him. In this perplexity the priest retired to the shrine of his god, before which he lamented his danger and misfortunes. Here he sunk into a profound sleep, and his deity promised him in a dream, that if he marched to meet the Assyrians, he should experience no injury, for that he would furnish him with assistance: the vision inspired him with confidence: he put himself at the head of his adherents and marched to Pelusium, the entrance of Egypt. Not a soldier accompanied the party, which was composed entirely of tradesmen and artisans. On their arrival at Pelusium, so immense a number of mice infested by night the enemy's camp, that their quivers and bows, together with what secured their arms to their shields, were gnawed in pieces. In the morning, the Arabians finding themselves without arms, fled in confusion and lost great numbers of their men."
Secular History Confirms Egyptian "Kingdom Against (Egyptian) Kingdom" "And They Shall Seek ... Familiar Spirits" (Isa. 19:2-3) (664-610 BC)
"After the abdication of Sabacon (the Ethiopian king of Egypt -- the "So" of 2 Ki. 17:4) there was anarchy in Egypt for two years; but the people falling into broils and tumults and SLAUGHTER one of another, twelve of the chief nobility took upon them the regal power and authority. Psammeticus, one of the kings, whose province was upon the seas coast, being envied by the others on account of the wealth which he derived from commerce, made WAR upon him; but he, having hired soldiers from Arabia, gained a victory over them." (Diod. Sic. 1:5) "At the death of their sovereign the priest of Vulcan, the Egyptian priests, who could not live without kings, chose twelve, among whom they divided the different districts of Egypt. These twelve kings were offering sacrifice, on a certain occasion, in the temple of Vulcan, and on the last day of the festival were about to make the accustomed libation; for this purpose the chief priest handed to them the golden cups used on these solemnities; but he mistook the number, and instead of twelve gave only eleven. Psammiticus, who was the last of them, not having a cup, took off his helmet, which happened to be of BRASS, and from this poured his libation. The other kings, observing this action remembered the prediction of the ORACLE 'that he among them who should pour a libation from a BRAZEN vessel should be sole monarch of Egypt.' They therefore confined him to the marshy parts of the country, and forbade him to leave it or to communicate with the rest of Egypt.... Psammeticus when in exile among the fens, being resolved to AVENGE himself upon the eleven kings, his persecutors, sent to the ORACLE of Latona, at Butos, which has among the Egyptians the highest character for veracity (Isa. 19:3 says they seek them that have familiar spirits). He was informed that the sea should AVENGE his cause by producing BRAZEN figures of men; and soon afterwards a body of Ionians and Carians, who had been engaged in a voyage of plunder, were compelled by distress to touch at Egypt: they landed in BRAZEN armour. Psammeticus, having formed alliance with these, OVERTHREW the eleven kings (Isa. 19:2), and became sole sovereign of Egypt." (Herodotus 2:147-153; also Diod. Sic 1:5) This was Dynasty XXVI (c. 660-529 BC)
Secular History Confirms Pharaoh Apries (Hophra -- Jer. 44:30) (589-570 BC) Was A Proud "Broken Reed" Who Sealed the Doom of Egypt
In 588 BC, Apries sent an army to protect Jerusalem from Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 37:5; 34:21). His forces quickly withdrew to avoid a major battle and in 586 BC Jerusalem was taken by Babylon. God said "because they (Egyptians) have been a staff of reed to the house of Israel. When they (Israelites) took hold of thee ...thou didst break ... I will bring a sword upon thee" (Ez. 29:6-7).
"Apries is said to have believed that his power was so firmly established, that not even a god could have brought him down." (Herodotus 2:169) But God foretold that "I will cause the sword to fall out of his hand" (Ez. 30:22) and "there shall be no more a (native -- cf. Ez. 26:17) PRINCE of the land of Egypt" (Ez. 30:13), "neither shall it (Egypt) exalt itself anymore" (Ez. 29:15).
Then Pharaoh Apries sent his army against Cyrene (Libya) against Dorian Greek invaders. It ended disastrously for the Egyptians. The survivors returned and rebelled, thinking they had been deliberately sacrificed. Apries sent Amasis his general to quell the rebellion. But the people put a crown on the head of Amasis and offered him the throne instead of Pharaoh Apries. Therefore, he led them against Apries whose palace was at Sais. Apries lost the battle (570 BC) and was taken prisoner for a time and then strangled (Herodotus 2:160-169).
God foretold that Egypt "shall be the BASEST of the KINGDOMS" (Ez. 29:14-15) and "there shall BE NO MORE A (native -- cf. Ez. 26:17) PRINCE of the land of Egypt" (Ez. 30:13). This undoubtedly refers to the future government of Egypt by FOREIGNERS, or to the general destruction of the Egyptian princes by Nebuchadnezzar and Amasis. All men know, says Josephus against Apion, 50. 2. sec. 11, “That the Egyptians were subject to the Persians, differing nothing from SLAVES, and after them to the Macedonians, who ruled over Asia.” Egypt never recovered its former glory; and indeed, after Nectanebus was driven out of it by Ochus, king of Persia, it never after had a native king.
1. Egypt became tributary to the Babylonians under Amasis.
2. After the ruin of the Babylonish empire, it became subject to the Persians.
3. After the Persians, it came into the hands of the Macedonians. With the Ptolemies it rose again to something like eminence, but that, it must be remembered, was an alien dynasty. The nationality of Egypt was suppressed, and Alexandria, practically a Greek city, took the place of Memphis, Sais, and Thebes.
4. After the Macedonians it fell into the hands of the Romans.
5. After the division of the Roman empire it was subdued by the Saracens. Moslem Arabs conquered Egypt in 639-640 AD.
6. About 1250 A.D., it came into the hands of the Mameluke slaves.
7. Selim, the ninth emperor of the Turks, conquered the Mamelukes, 1517 A.D., and annexed Egypt to the Ottoman empire.
8. Napoleon's French conquest of Egypt from 1798-1801
9. British Protectorate (1882-1956)
10. Made a republic 18 June, 1953. Ex-king Farouk was the king until Egypt became a republic. But King Farouk was not descended from Egyptian Blood. He was an Albanian. He was descended from Mohammed Ali. The Egyptian rulers since 1953 have not been PRINCES and most were not Egyptian. They were Arab. For instance President Anwar Sadat descends from Moslem Arabs who dominate Egypt and Sudan -- not from Copts (ancient Egyptians) who are a small persecuted minority.
The captivity of the Egyptians (Ez. 29:14), though not taken notice of by Herodotus, is mentioned by Berosus, in one of the fragments of his history, quoted by Josephus, Antiq., 50. 10. chap. 11, and published with notes by Scaliger, at the end of his books, De Emendatione Temporum, whose remark upon the place is very observable, namely, “The calamities that befell the Egyptians are passed over by Herodotus, because the Egyptian priests would not inform him of any thing that tended to the disgrace of their nation.”
Today, is not Egypt the most heavily populated nation in the Middle East? Yet Ezekiel 29:15 says God would diminish the Egyptians and make Egypt a base kingdom. Has this prophecy been broken? The Bible means what it says. Today, Egypt is populated mainly by Arabs, not Egyptians. The Egyptians, upon whom God pronounced this curse, are called COPTS today. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Copts in Egypt -- not the Arabs -- are the racial representatives of the ancient Egyptians. In the article "COPTS" the Encyclopedia acknowledges: "the COPTS have undoubtedly preserved the race of the Egyptians as it existed at the time of the Arab conquest in remarkable purity." Further proof of this is found in the book The Nile by E. A. Wallis Budge. On page 331, he States: "The COPTS are direct descendants from the ancient Egyptians." He further admits, on page 333: "The COPTIC language is, at base, ancient Egyptian. Many of the nouns and verbs found in the Hieroglyphic texts remain unchanged in COPTIC ..." Notice how this ties in with the prophecy of Ezekiel 29:15. First of all, God said be would diminish the Egyptians -- not the Arabs who later invaded the country. When this prophecy was written by Ezekiel there were approximately 7,000,000 Egyptians or COPTS. Today, there remain only one million. There are seven times fewer Egyptians today than there were when this curse was pronounced. And not only that! Only one out of every twenty-four inhabitants of Egypt is a true Egyptian! The rest are Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael, Abram's son. In their own country the descendants of the ancient Egyptians are outnumbered twenty-three to one by Arab foreigners who have corne in and taken over the country. This prophecy further states that the Egyptians shall no more rule over the nations. This has been strikingly fulfilled! Almost every political office in Egypt is filled by an Arab. Gamal Abdel Nasser, ruler of Egypt, was an Arab. The COPTS not only do not rule over the nations -- they don't even rule in their own country. They were prophesied to be a base kingdom, a low, subservient people. Most of the COPTS are scribes or handicraftsmen and in those capacities they serve the Arabs. They are low in every sense of tile word -- even in their work.
Most of the COPTS have adopted a form of the "Christian" religion. In a country thar is almost entirely Moslem, this has caused them constant persecution. They are sneered at because of their religion. They are looked down upon because of their occupations. They have become a people cursed by God. As a final clincher, Ezekiel prophesied that the Egyptians would return, after being led into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, into the land of Pathros (verse 4). Pathros is in Upper Middle Egypt. The majority of the COPTS live in UPPER MIDDLE EGYPT! There is even a village named COPTOS located 25 miles northeast of Thebes.
This prophecy has been fulfilled, point by point-exactly as Ezekiel prophesied!
Isaiah Foretold Cyrus Conquering Babylon -- 539 B.C.
Isaiah predicted the Babylonian Empire would fall to the Medes and the Persians (Isaiah 13; 21:1-10). He also called Cyrus by name (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1-5), and said the protective waters of the Euphrates would "dry up" (Isa. 44:27) (Herodotus 1:185–191) and Babylon's "two-leaved gates" would "not be shut" (Isa. 45:1). "That I may open before him the valves; and the gates shall not be shut" - The gates of Babylon within the city descending from the streets to the river, were providentially left open, when Cyrus's forces entered the city in the night through the channel of the river, in the general disorder occasioned by the great feast which was then celebrated. Otherwise, says Herodotus, 1:191, the Persians would have been shut up in the bed of the river, and taken as in a net, and all destroyed. And the gates of the palace were opened imprudently by the king's orders, to inquire what was the cause of the tumult without; when the two parties under Gobrias and Gadatas rushed in, got possession of the palace, and slew the king (Xenophen's Cyropedia. 7:22-23 p. 528). Herodotus 1:179 says, "In the wall all round there are a hundred gates, all of brass; and so in like manner are the sides and the lintels." "The gates likewise within the city, opening to the river from the several streets, were of brass; as were those also of the temple of Belus" (Herod. 1:180, 181).The Chaldean scribe who recorded the story on a clay tablet (which was secured by the British Museum in 1879) closed his record with these words: "On the sixteenth day, Gobryas, pasha of the land of Gutium, and the troops of Cyrus, without a battle, entered Babylon." -- From tablet "Annals of Nabonidus" quoted by C.J. Ball in "Light From the East."
The Lord will "subdue nations before him" and "loose the loins of kings" (Isa. 45:1). Xenophon gives the following list of the nations conquered by Cyrus: "the Syrians, Assyrians, Arabians, Cappadocians, both countries of the Phrygians, Lydians, Carians, Phoenicians, Babylonians. He moreover reigned over the Bactrians, Indians, Cilicians, the Sacae, Paphlagones, ldariandyni or Megadinians; likewise the Greeks that inhabit Asia, Cyprians and Egyptians." (- Cyrop.1:4), All these kingdoms he acknowledges, in his decree for the restoration of the Jews, to have been given to him by Jehovah, the God of heaven (Ezra 1:2). He was obliged to acknowledge this because Josephus says that Cyrus read this prophecy himself, which Isaiah had delivered: "This was known to Cyrus by his reading the book which Isaiah left behind him of his Prophecies. For this Prophet said, that God had spoken thus to him in a secret vision: 'My will is, that Cyrus, whom I have appointed to be King over many and great nations, send back my people to their own land, and build my temple.' This was foretold by Isaiah one hundred and forty years before the temple was demolished. Accordingly when Cyrus read this, and admired the divine power, an earnest desire and an ambition seized upon him, to fulfil what was so written." (Antiquities 11:1:2) Herodotus says, that he ruled over all Asia (Clio, sive 1:130.). To "loose the loins of kings" such as Croesus king of Lydia, and Belshazzar king of Babylon, by divesting them of their dignity, power, and government" was not the full meaning. Belshazzar was thrown into such a panic that "the joints of his loins were loosed" literally (Daniel 5:6).
Amazingly, Isaiah’s prophecy was made roughly 150 years before Cyrus was born (Isaiah prophesied in about 700 B.C.; Cyrus took the city of Babylon in 539 B.C.). To add to Cyrus’ significance, Isaiah predicted that Cyrus would act as the Lord’s “shepherd” (44:28) to return Israel to their land a second time (Isa. 11:11-12; Isa. 51:9-11). The Exodus from Egypt was the first. Justin (Hist. ex Trogo 1:5) says, he had this name given him, while he was among the shepherds, by whom he was brought up, having been exposed in his infancy. Shepherd was an epithet which Cyrus took to himself. Cyrus himself compares a king to a shepherd, and observes a likeness between them (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 8:18). In fact, Isaiah recorded these words of the Lord concerning Cyrus: “And he shall perform all My pleasure, even saying to Jerusalem, you shall be built; and to the temple, thy foundation shall be laid" (44:28). This is said with great exactness since only the foundation was laid in Cyrus's time; the Jews being discouraged and hindered by their enemies from going on with the building in his reign, until the times of Darius, king of Persia. (See Ezra 1:1).
The name Ahasuerus, mentioned in the Book of Esther, is, in one of its Greek forms, Xerxes, which is explained by Herodotus (6:98) to mean a warrior.
"Cambyses, and afterwards Xerxes, from good shepherds became base wolves, fleecing the flock." (Max. Tyr. diss. 40)
Jaddua the High Priest Showed Alexander the Book of Daniel Before the Battle of Arbela in 331 B.C.
Daniel was given a vision regarding a goat that ran from the west and attacked a ram coming from the east. "The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. And the rough goat is the king of Grecia: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king" (Dan. 8:20-21) -- Alexander the Great. King Darius was defeated three times -- from 334-331 B.C. -- at the Battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugemela (Arbela). This vision was given about 538 B.C.
Two hundred years later Alexander of Macedonia, the "first king" of united Grecia, was coming swiftly from the west against Medo-Persia. Already he had won the decisive victories of the Granicus and Issus, and Persia lay prostrate. As Alexander approached Jerusalem, he was determined to punish the city. It had been slow to transfer its allegiance from Persia to Grecia. But Josephus says that as Alexander drew near the city, the gates were flung open, and a procession of priests and citizens moved out to meet the great conqueror. The priests bore in their hands the books of the prophet Daniel
According to Antiquities 11:8:5: "And when he understood that he was not far from the city, he went out in procession, with the priests, and the multitude of the citizens. The procession was venerable, and the manner of it different from that of other nations. It reached to a place called Sapha: which name translated into Greek signifies a prospect, for you have thence a prospect both of Jerusalem and of the temple: and when the Phenecians, and the Chaldeans that followed him thought they should have liberty to plunder the city, and torment the High Priest to death: which the King’s displeasure fairly promised them: the very reverse of it happened. For Alexander, when he saw the multitude at a distance, in white garments, while the priests stood clothed with fine linen, and the High Priest in purple and scarlet clothing; with his miter on his head; having the golden plate whereon the name of God was engraved, he approached by himself, and adored that name, and first saluted the High Priest. The Jews also did all together, with one voice, salute Alexander; and encompass him about. Whereupon the Kings of Syria, and the rest were surprized at what Alexander had done; and supposed him disordered in his mind. However, Parmenio alone went up to him, and asked him, “How it came to pass, that when all others adored him, he should adore the High Priest of the Jews?” To whom he replied, “I did not adore him, but that God who hath honoured him with his High Priesthood. For I saw this very person, in a dream, in this very habit, when I was at Dios in Macedonia. Who, when I was considering with my self how I might obtain the dominion of Asia, exhorted me to make no delay; but boldly to pass over the sea thither: for that he would conduct my army, and would give me the dominion over the Persians. Whence it is that having seen no other in that habit, and now seeing this person in it, and remembring that vision, and the exhortation which I had in my dream, I believe that I bring this army under the divine conduct, and shall therewith conquer Darius, and destroy the power of the Persians; and that all things will succeed according to what is in my own mind.” And when he had said this to Parmenio, and had given the High Priest his right hand, the priests ran along by him; and he came into the city. And when he went up into the temple, he offered sacrifice to God, according to the High Priest’s direction: and magnificently treated both the High Priest, and the priests. And when the book of Daniel was shewed him, wherein Daniel declared that one of the Greeks should destroy the empire of the Persians, he supposed that himself was the person intended. And as he was then glad, he dismissed the multitude for the present: but the next day he called them to him, and bid them ask what favours they pleased of him. Whereupon the High Priest desired, that they might enjoy the laws of their forefathers: and might pay no tribute on the seventh year. He granted all they desired. And when they intreated him that he would permit the Jews in Babylon and Media to enjoy their own laws also, he willingly promised to do hereafter what they desired. And when he said to the multitude, that if any of them would list themselves in his army, on this condition that they should continue under the laws of their forefathers, and live according to them, he was willing to take them with him; many were ready to accompany him in his wars."
The fall of the House of Israel and its capital, Samaria, was in 721 BC. Adding 390 years (Ez. 4:5) brings us to 331 BC. when Alexander the Great conquered Persia at the Battle of Arbela or Gaugamela on October 1, 331 B.C. King Darius III of Persia had offered Alexander half the Persian kingdom if he would sign a peace agreement, but the offer was refused. Alexander's general, Parmenion, told him "If I were you, I would accept Darius' very generous offer." Alexander replied, "I would too if I were Parmenion!" Nothing would stand in the way of the complete and total conquest of Persia. Alexander overslept on the morning of battle, and was awakened by his concerned generals. He told them not to worry because the battle was already won! Alexander was inspired with the belief that he had a Divinely-ordained mission to overthrow Persia. He was correct! This conquest was predicted in Daniel chapter 8 and Ezekiel Chapter 4 long before. This large Persian force of over 250,000 soldiers was defeated by only 47,000 Greeks, who were outnumbered over 5 to 1.
The lost ten tribes of Israel were largely held captive by Assyria, Babylon and Medo-Persia till the alotted time of punishment ended with the conquest of the Persian Empire in 331 B.C. (exactly 390 years after their kingdom collapsed -- Ez. 4:5). Still, it was the Scythian Massagetae (who were Israelites), ranging free on the Asian steppes west of the Caspian Sea, who killed the Persian emperor Cyrus the Great when he tried to conquer them. It should also be mentioned that there were still Israelites dwelling under the dominion of Alexander and then of his successors, the Seleucids. These would gain their independence the next century as the Parthians. "Your seed shall be as the dust of the earth. You shall spread abroad to the west, to the east, to the north and to the south. In you and in your seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 28:14). "Israel wandered like a flock" (Zechariah 10:2).
When Alexander invaded India, and Porus was about to engage with him in battle, the elephant on which Porus rode "Spoke with a human voice, and said, O king, attempt nothing against Alexander." (Plutarch de Fluv. 1)