Genesis chapter 16 Star Chart: Clockwise from when "Sarai Abram's wife (Virgo) took Hagar her maid the Egyptian (Coma), after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan (1866 B.C.), and gave her (Castor) to her husband Abram (Pollux) to be his wife" (16:3) till "Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram" (16:16) in 1865 B.C. is a 275° day pregnancy. Notice Ishmael is a Centaur -- a "wild donkey" (16:12).


Ishmael Will Be Like a Wild Donkey,
His Hand Will Be Against Everyone,
And Everyone's Hand Against Him;
He Will Live East of His Brothers


16:1 Now Sarai Abram's wife (Virgo) bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar (Coma).

The name “Hagar” is associated with that of wandering Arab tribes, called the Hagrites, 1 Chronicles 5:10; 1 Chronicles 5:19-20; 1 Chronicles 27:31, with which should be compared the Hagarenes of Psalm 83:6, “the tents of Edom, and the Ishmaelites; Moab, and the Hagarenes.”

Whether the story of Hagar, in this chapter, in any way bears upon the meaning of her name, is more than we can say for certain. But, in Arabic, hagara = “to flee,” and the well-known word hegira, the epoch of Mohammed, is his “flight” from Mecca.

2 And Sarai (Pollux)(red radius) said unto Abram (Castor), Behold now, the Lord hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid (Coma); it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram (Castor) hearkened to the (red radius) voice of Sarai (Pollux).

It was the custom also in Babylonia, as is shewn by the Code of Hammurabi, that “if a man’s wife was childless, he was allowed to take a concubine and bring her into his house, but he was not to place her upon an equal footing with the wife. Or, the wife might give her husband a maidservant (amtu), and, if she brought up children, he was forbidden to take in addition a concubine” (S. A. Cook, The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi, p. iii).

by her] By the adoption of Hagar’s children as her own.

3 And Sarai (Virgo) Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian (Coma), after Abram (Castor) had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan (1866 B.C.), and gave her (Castor) to her husband Abram (Pollux) to be his wife (Castor).

4 And he (red radius) went in unto Hagar (Coma), and she conceived (Virgo): and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress (Virgo) was despised in her (lunar) eyes.

5 And Sarai (Pollux) (red radius) said unto Abram (Castor), My wrong be upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she (red radius) saw that she had conceived (Virgo), I was despised in her (Pollux) eyes: the Lord judge between me and thee.

as Peninnah did Hannah, 1 Samuel 1:6; and it was the more ungrateful, as it was at the motion of her mistress that she was given to Abram for wife.

The possibility, that in these cases the position of the mistress might be compromised by the insolence of the handmaid, formed the subject of special provision in the Code of Hammurabi. “Branding was the punishment inflicted upon the owner’s handmaid who arrogantly set herself on an equality with her mistress” (§ 146: see S. A. Cook, p. 160).

6 But Abram (Argo)(red radius) said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid (Castor or Coma) is in thine (Virgo or Pollux) hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her (branch in Virgo's hand), she (Coma) (red radius) fled from her face.

this flight of hers was agreeable to her name, for Hagar in the Arabic language signifies to "flee", hence the flight of Mahomet is called the Hegira.

7 And the angel of the Lord (Argo) found her by a (Milky Way) fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

8 And he (red radius) said, Hagar (Coma), Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she (red radius) said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai (Virgo).

9 And the angel of the Lord (Argo)(red radius) said unto her (Coma), Return to thy (Virgo) mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.

10 And the angel of the Lord (Argo) (red radius) said unto her (Coma), I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.

11 And the angel of the Lord (Argo) (red radius) said unto her (Virgo), Behold, thou art with (solar) child and shalt bear a son, and shalt (red radius) call his name Ishmael; because the Lord hath (lunar ear) heard thy (Virgo's branch) affliction.

12 And he will be a wild (Centaur) man; his (red radius) hand will be against every (Gemini, Cepheus and Argo) man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence (east of) of all his (Gemini, Cepheus and Argo) brethren.

13 And she (red radius) called the name of the Lord (Argo) that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?

14 Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

15 And Hagar (Coma) bare Abram a son: and Abram (Argo) called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael.

16 And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.



Next Lesson: Ancient Jewish Marriage Customs | Back to Home | Email Us